Textile Finishing is a process used in manufacturing
of fiber, fabric, or clothing.
Finishing involves subjecting the textile material to
different physical and chemical treatments, so as to
impart required functional properties to it.
For example wash and wear finish for a cotton fabric
is necessary to make it crease free or wrinkle free.
To improve fabric attractiveness.
To improve serviceability.
To give desirable qualities to fabric.
To improve the feel of the fabric.
To cover faults in the original fabric.
To improve wearing qualities of fabric by making it shrink or
To set garment shape. E.g. Durable press.
To import special properties to the fabric for special end uses such
as waterproofing, flame-proofing etc.
To strengthen the fabric by coating or laminating.
To produce novelty effects e.g. organdie fabrics by parchment
Functional Finishes improve
properties of the fabric ;
like durability, strength etc.
Aesthetic Finishes modify the
appearance and /or hand or
drape of the fabrics.
Napping And Sueding
Mercerization is a treatment for cotton that gives
fabric a lustrous appearance.
Alters the chemical structure of the cotton fiber.
The structure of the fiber changes from alpha-
cellulose to beta-cellulose.
Results in the swelling of the cell wall of the
cotton fiber. This causes increases in the surface
area and reflectance, and gives the fiber a softer
It is a mechanical finish.
Fibers are raised from woven/knitted fabrics by
rotating, bristled, wire covered brushes.
Overall effect is raised fibers from fabric surface.
Napped fabrics have softer handle.
Better insulation properties due to more air
Mainly used as blankets, winter clothing.
It is a mechanical finish.
Similar to napping.
Produces a soft, suede-like surface.
Sand paper like material is used instead of
rotating wire covered cylinder.
• Forming a film on the surface of a fiber influences
the touch of the product and has a stiffening
• Stiffening agents
1. Starches – finishing of cotton cloth. Ex: potato ,
2. Dextrines – used for dyed and printed fabrics. No
undue effect on the dye or print.
3. Natural gum – mainly used in printing as well as
Fine yarn cotton fabrics can be finished to be
both stiff and transparent by this process.
It involves rapid immersion in sulphuric acid,
followed by immediate neutralization in sodium
The finish is permanent. This finish is also known
as Organdi finish or Parchmentisation.
Required for more pleasant hand and better
Fabrics are harsher and stiffer because of their
construction or due to some prior finishing process.
Softening can be done by either mechanical or
Cotton, rayon and flax are more
susceptible to wrinkle OR crease.
Crease occurs due to the hydrogen bonds
of the cellulosic molecules in the
Due to application of heat or moisture,
the hydrogen bond breaks and new
hydrogen bond occurs at new dimension.
Therefore creasing can be reduced if the
hydrogen bond formation can be
Creasing can be controlled by physical deposition of
a suitable polymeric material in amorphous region.
Or the hydroxy groups of adjacent macromolecules
may be reacted with bifunctional agents.
Reacting cotton with acidified formaldehyde.
CRF finishes are resin finishes.
The fabric is saturated with resin and then the resin
is cured at temperatures of about 360°F.
The fabric becomes stiffer, less absorbent and more
resistant to wrinkling.
Decreases pilling. 
Increases ease of maintenance.
Betters dimensional stability.
Chemical treated cotton fabric dry more easily.
Decreased breaking strength( up to 28%).
Decreased tearing strength.( up to 19%)
What is soiling of textiles?
Dirt or soil get attracted to textile material.
Development of static charge electricity in
hydrophilic textiles, making them prone to soiling.
Re-deposition of soil during washing.
Hydrophobic materials are not wetted properly
Mainly observed in polyester fabrics.
Advantages of soil release:
Making the fibers more absorbent
Permitting better wettability for improved soil
Done by using hydrophilic finishes.
Facilitates soil release during washing.
Prevent soil redeposition.
Also, reduces static charge by maintaining
moisture on the fabric surface.
Thus soil attraction during wear can be
Natural fibers such as cotton are more susceptible
Their porous hydrophilic structure retains water,
oxygen and nutrients, providing a perfect
environment for bacterial growth.
The enzymes that degrade cotton are cellulase and
cellobiase and these reduce strength and produce
foul smell and color.
Smelling spots and even holes are created on the
NATURAL PLANTS WHICH ARE USED
IN MAKING ANTIMICROBIAL FINISH
- NEEM EXTRACT
- NATURAL DYES
- EUCALYPTUS OIL
- AZUKAI BEANS
- TULSI LEAVES
Chitin, is a natural, non-toxic , microbial resistant and
Chitin is one of the most abundant polysaccharides
found in nature , derived from marine shells and
Chitin is applied on to the fabric by padding the
cotton fabric with a mixture of chitin and citric acid
followed by high temperature curing.
The fixation of chitosan citrate solution onto cotton
fabrics followed by dry- cure process.
Neem has been recognized as one of the most
promising sources of compounds with insect
control, antimicrobial and medicinal properties.
Work has been reported on its textile application as
an antimicrobial agent.
Few patents based on the use of neem oil as an
antibacterial agent has been reported.
DEO2 arrests the growth of fungi and bacteria.
Keeps fabric fresh and anti-odour even after day-
long wearing in humid and warm climate.
Long-lasting (50 home washes) Anti-Microbial
Avoids spread of infections from microbial
Reduces staining and degradation of fabrics by
providing better-UV protection.
•Flame retardants are materials that have
the quality of inhibiting or resisting the
spreading of fire.
• It stops the fire from traveling along the
length of the fabric and decreases the fire
development rate , providing valuable extra
time to make an escape.
Fabric burns because of pyrolytic decomposition
of the fiber substrate.
The products of this decomposition include
combustible gases, non combustible gases and
HOWTO FLAME RETARDANTS WORK?
Fire retardants interfere with combustion at
different stages of the process.
The different mechanisms are:
- DILUTION OF FUEL
- DILUTION OF GAS PHASE
- GAS PHASE RADICAL QUENCHING
Flame retardants interfere with flame at different
stages to cool the fabric and keep the temperature
below ignition temperature.
Fabric finishes play a major role in the garment. These
finishes are derived from both natural as well as
manmade sources. Finishes improve appearance of
fabric along with its performance and hence are divided
on the basis of aesthetic and functional properties. These
finishes come from both natural as well as manmade
sources. Finishes decrease crease, improve flame
retardation, provide softness and stiffness, decrease
pilling, raise fibers from fabric surface and also provide
protection against microbes, insects and bacteria.
Overall finishes play an important role in determining
cost and improving quality of fabric.
1. Dr.V. A . SHENAI,TECHNOLOGYOFTEXTILE
2. INDIAN JOURNAL OF fiber &TEXTILE RESEARCH
VOL. 34, JUNE 2009, PP 183-186
3. ALY A S, HASHEM A & SAYED HUSSEIN S, INDIAN
JOURNAL OF fiber &TEXTILE RESEARCHVOL. 29,
2004, P.NO 218
6. M JOSHII, SWALI, S RAJENDRAN – JOURNALOF
APPLIED POLYMER SCIENCE, OCTOBER 2007,
VOL 106, PG-793-800