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  • 1. NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTER MANAGEMENTA Supplementary Textbook in Geography for Class XI on UNIT 11 : Natural Hazards and DisastersCENTRAL BOARD OF SECONDARY EDUCATION PREET VIHAR, DELHI - 110092
  • 2. FIRST EDITION 2006© CBSE, DELHIPrice:Published By: The Secretary, Central Board of Secondary Education,2, Community Centre, Preet Vihar, Delhi-110092Design, Layout and Illustration By: Chandu Press, D-97, Shakarpur, Delhi-110092Printed By: Chandu Press, D-97, Shakarpur, Delhi-110092
  • 3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSy CBSE Advisors: ο Shri Ashok Ganguly, Chairman, CBSE. ο Shri G. Balasubramanian, Director (Academics), CBSE.y Editor: ο Shri M.P Sajnani, Advisor Disaster Management & Dy. National Project Director, GOI-UNDP, DRM Programme.y Authors: ο Ms. Balaka Dey, Programme Associate, GoI – UNDP, DRM Programme. ο Dr. R.B Singh, Reader, Dept. of Geography, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, Delhi – 110007.y Review Team: ο Prof. Noor Mohammad, Dept. of Geography, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, Delhi – 110007. ο Shri S.S Rastogi, Retd. Principal, Directorate of Education, Delhiy Coordinator: Ms. Sugandh Sharma, Education Officer (Commerce), CBSE
  • 4. CONTENTS Page Nos.Foreword (i)For Students (ii)Chapter 1: 1 Introduction to Disaster ManagementChapter 2: Natural Hazards: causes, distribution pattern, consequences and mitigation measures for : y Earthquake 10 y Tsunami 17 y Cyclone 23 y Flood 30 y Drought 34 y Landslide 39
  • 5. FOREWORDThe recurrent occurrences of various natural and manmade disasters like the December2004 Tsunami, the bomb blasts in the cinema halls of Delhi and many such incidenceshave diverted our focus towards safety of one’s own life. In the previous class of VIII, IXand X as students you must have read about various natural and manmade hazards –their preparedness and mitigation measures. In class XI, the Board had introduced frontlinecurriculum on Disaster Management in Unit 11 of the Geography syllabus. In supplementarytextbook on Disaster Management in Geography the Board intends to explain in detailvarious concepts used in Disaster Management and discussed about the causes, distributionpattern, consequences and mitigation measures for various natural hazards like earthquake,tsunami, flood, cyclone, landslide and drought which are a recurrent phenomena in ourcountry.I hope this book will help all students of Geography, who are the future citizens, to have abetter understanding of the subject so that they are well prepared to combat it. Beingsenior students of the school I would appreciate if all of you (including teachers) asresponsible citizens and as volunteers take up the initiative of preparing the school disastermanagement plan and also educate the younger students of the school on various safetymeasures that need to be taken up for a better living.I would like to thank Ministry of Home Affairs for their support and guidance in the preparationof the course material and helping the Board in carrying out training programmes for theteachers across the country. I would also like to extend my sincere thanks to the GeographyDepartment, University of Delhi for the support they have extended to come up with thecourse outline for the Board and also helping in the development of the textbook. Mysincere thanks to the UNDP team who have contributed the most and have tirelessly putall their effort in development of the textbook and also carrying out training programmesfor the teachers and the school principals across the country without whose support theinitiative would have been difficult to continue. I am grateful to the teachers who haveplayed a key role in making the subject so interesting and demanding. Their understandingand interest have made teachers, students and other staff members of the school designthe school disaster management plans which have made the schools a better and saferplace.Last but not the least my sincere thanks and appreciation to Shri G. Balasubramanian(Director, Academics) who has always guided the team while developing the textbook andintroducing innovative ways to make the subject as a necessary life skill than a meresubject. Ashok Ganguly Chairman, CBSE (i)
  • 6. For the Students………………Some of you must have encountered one or the other natural or manmade hazard whichhas caused a huge loss to life and property and have disrupted the normal life of thepeople. Those who have had the opportunity to undergo certain training on safety like firstaid or search and rescue would have helped those in misery but then all of you are not wellequipped with both theoretical and practical knowledge. As a young responsible citizenyou can take up initiatives to prepare the community and make the community a saferplace to live.The Board in its endeavor to make the students good managers and volunteers and effec-tive carrier of messages, have introduced Disaster Management at various levels startingfrom Standard VIII with effect from the academic year 2003. The Standard VIII textbook on“Together Towards a Safer India – Part I” focuses on various natural and manmadehazards and its preparedness measures. Taking it forward the Standard IX textbook “To-gether Towards a Safer India – Part II” explains explicitly on the mitigation measuresthat need to be taken up to save lives, livelihood and property. Apart from understanding itas a subject, CBSE has felt the need to understand the subject as a necessary life skill.Standard X textbook “Together Towards a Safer India – Part III” looks disaster manage-ment from a different perspective of making the students and teachers help in preparationof Disaster Management Plans for the school and the community and also making themunderstand the various First Aid and Search and Rescue techniques and also on the roleof government, NGOs and others in managing disasters.Those who have had the opportunity to read these books are by now better equipped but,as a student the Board doesn’t refrain you from gaining knowledge and have a basicunderstanding of the subject. In this textbook we have tried to give some basicunderstanding about various natural hazards from the geography point of view. Apart fromvarious concepts the chapter tries to analyse various hazards prevalent in our country.Understanding the causes, distribution pattern, consequences and mitigation measureswill help you to get better prepared. (ii)
  • 7. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO DISASTER MANAGEMENTObjectives of the chapter: Background:The main objective of this chapter is to The global context:have a basic understanding of various Disasters are as old as human history butconcepts used in Disaster Management. the dramatic increase and the damageThe concepts explained here are: caused by them in the recent past haveDisaster, Hazard, Vulnerability, Capacity, become a cause of national and internationalRisk and Disaster Management Cycle. concern. Over the past decade, the numberApart from the terminologies, the chapter of natural and manmade disasters hasalso tries to explain various types of climbed inexorably. From 1994 to 1998,disasters. In standard VIII, IX and X reported disasters average was 428 per yearmany of you have already been but from 1999 to 2003, this figure went up tointroduced to some of these concepts. an average of 707 disaster events per yearThis chapter has been designed showing an increase of about 60 per centto upgrade your knowledge and skill over the previous years. The biggest rise wasso as to have a better understanding of in countries of low human development,natural hazards, disasters and their which suffered an increase of 142 per cent.management. The figure 1.1 shows the deadliest disasters of the decade (1992 – 2001). Drought andAfter reading this chapter the famine have proved to be the deadlieststudents and the teachers will be disasters globally, followed by flood,able to have a basic understanding technological disaster, earthquake, winds-of the concepts and should be able torm, extreme temperature and others. Globalto differentiate between them with economic loss related to disaster eventssuitable examples. average around US $880 billion per year. Fig : 1.1 World Scenario: Reported Deaths from all Disasters (1992-2001) 1
  • 8. Natural Hazards & Disaster ManagementIndian scenario: affected millions across the country leaving behind a trail of heavy loss of life,The scenario in India is no different from property and livelihood. Table 1.1 showsthe global context. The super cyclone of a list of some of the major disasters thatOrissa (1999), the Gujarat earthquake have caused colossal impact on the(2001) and the recent Tsunami (2004) community. Table 1.1 Major disasters in India since 1970 Sl. No Disaster Impact Cyclone 1 29th October 1971, Orissa Cyclone and tidal waves killed 10,000 people 2 19th November, 1977, Cyclone and tidal waves killed 20,000 Andhra Pradesh people 3 29th and 30th October 1999, Cyclone and tidal waves killed 9,000 and Orissa 18 million people were affected Earthquake 4 20th October 1991 Uttarkashi An earthquake of magnitude 6.6 killed 723 people 5 30th September 1993 Latur Approximately 8000 people died and there was a heavy loss to infrastructure 6 22 May 1997 Jabalpur 39 people dead 7 29th March 1997, Chamoli 100 people dead 8 26th January, 2001, Bhuj, More than 10,000 dead and heavy loss Gujarat to infrastructure Landslide 9 July 1991, Assam 300 people killed, heavy loss to roads and infrastructure 10 August 1993, Nagaland 500 killed and more than 200 houses destroyed and about 5kms. Road damaged. 11 18th August 1998, Malpa 210 people killed. Villages were washed away Flood 12 1978 Floods in North East India 3,800 people killed and heavy loss to property. 13 1994 Floods in Assam, More than 2000 people killed and Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu and thousands affected Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Panjab, Uttar Pradesh, Goa, Kerala and Gujarat 2
  • 9. Natural Hazards & Disaster ManagementWhile studying about the impact we need to origin to the French word “Desastre” whichbe aware of potential hazards, how, when is a combination of two words ‘des’ meaningand where they are likely to occur, and the bad and ‘aster’ meaning star. Thus the termproblems which may result of an event. In refers to ‘Bad or Evil star’. A disaster canIndia, 59 per cent of the land mass is be defined as “A serious disruption in thesusceptible to seismic hazard; 5 per cent of functioning of the community or a societythe total geographical area is prone to floods; causing wide spread material, economic,8 per cent of the total landmass is prone to social or environmental losses which exceedcyclones; 70 per cent of the total cultivable the ability of the affected society to copearea is vulnerable to drought. Apart from this using its own resources”.the hilly regions are vulnerable to avalanches/landslides/hailstorms/cloudbursts. Apart from A disaster is a result from the combinationthe natural hazards, we need to know about of hazard, vulnerability and insufficientthe other manmade hazards which are capacity or measures to reduce the potentialfrequent and cause huge damage to life and chances of risk.property. It is therefore important that we are A disaster happens when a hazard impactsaware of how to cope with their effects. on the vulnerable population and causesWe have seen the huge loss to life, property damage, casualties and disruption. Fig: 1.2and infrastructure a disaster can cause but would give a better illustration of what alet us understand what is a disaster, what disaster is. Any hazard – flood, earthquakeare the factors that lead to it and its impact. or cyclone which is a triggering event along with greater vulnerability (inadequate accessWhat is a Disaster ? to resources, sick and old people, lack of awareness etc) would lead to disasterAlmost everyday, newspapers, radio and causing greater loss to life and property. Fortelevision channels carry reports on disaster example; an earthquake in an uninhabitedstriking several parts of the world. But what desert cannot be considered a disaster, nois a disaster? The term disaster owes its matter how strong the intensities produced. Fig: 1.2 3
  • 10. Natural Hazards & Disaster ManagementAn earthquake is disastrous only when it 1. Natural hazards are hazards which areaffects people, their properties and activities. caused because of natural phenomenaThus, disaster occurs only when hazards (hazards with meteorological, geological orand vulnerability meet. But it is also to be even biological origin). Examples of naturalnoted that with greater capacity of the hazards are cyclones, tsunamis, earth-individual/community and environment to quake and volcanic eruption which areface these disasters, the impact of a hazard exclusively of natural origin. Landslides,reduces. Therefore, we need to understand floods, drought, fires are socio-naturalthe three major components namely hazard, hazards since their causes are both naturalvulnerability and capacity with suitable and man made. For example flooding mayexamples to have a basic understanding of be caused because of heavy rains, landslidedisaster management. or blocking of drains with human waste.What is a Hazard ? How is it clas- 2. Manmade hazards are hazards whichsified ? are due to human negligence. Manmade hazards are associated with industries orHazard may be defined as “a dangerous energy generation facilities and includecondition or event, that threat or have the explosions, leakage of toxic waste, pollution,potential for causing injury to life or damage dam failure, wars or civil strife etc.to property or the environment.” The word‘hazard’ owes its origin to the word ‘hasard’ The list of hazards is very long. Many occurin old French and ‘az-zahr’ in Arabic frequently while others take placemeaning ‘chance’ or ‘luck’. Hazards can be occasionally. However, on the basis of theirgrouped into two broad categories namely genesis, they can be categorized asnatural and manmade. follows: Table 1.2: Various types of hazards Types Hazards Geological Hazards 1. Earthquake 4. Landslide 2. Tsunami 5. Dam burst 3. Volcanic eruption 6. Mine Fire Water & Climatic Hazards 1. Tropical Cyclone 6. Cloudburst 2. Tornado and Hurricane 7. Landslide 3. Floods 8. Heat & Cold wave 4. Drought 9. Snow Avalanche 5. Hailstorm 10. Sea erosion Environmental Hazards 1. Environmental pollutions 3. Desertification 2. Deforestation 4. Pest Infection Biological 1. Human / Animal Epidemics 3. Food poisoning 2. Pest attacks 4. Weapons of Mass Destruction 4
  • 11. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management Types Hazards Chemical, Industrial and 1. Chemical disasters 3. Oil spills/Fires Nuclear Accidents 2. Industrial disasters 4. Nuclear Accident related 1. Boat / Road / Train 3. Building collapse accidents / air crash 4. Electric Accidents Rural / Urban fires 5. Festival related Bomb /serial bomb disasters blasts 6. Mine flooding 2. Forest firesWhat is vulnerability ? proximity, location and nature of the hazard. It also relates to the technical capability ofVulnerability may be defined as “The extent building and structures to resist the forcesto which a community, structure, services acting upon them during a hazard event.or geographic area is likely to be damagedor disrupted by the impact of particular Figure 1.3 shows the settlements which arehazard, on account of their nature, located in hazardous slopes. Many landslideconstruction and proximity to hazardous and flooding disasters are linked to what youterrains or a disaster prone area.” see in the figure 1.3. Unchecked growth of settlements in unsafe areas exposes theVulnerabilities can be categorized into people to the hazard. In case of an earth-physical and socio-economic vulnerability. quake or landslide the ground may fail and the houses on the top may topple or slidePhysical Vulnerability: It includes notions of and affect the settlements at the lower levelwho and what may be damaged or even if they are designed well for earthquakedestroyed by natural hazard such as earth- forces.quakes or floods. It is based on the physicalcondition of people and elements at risk, Socio-economic Vulnerability: The degreesuch as buildings, infrastructure etc; and their to which a population is affected by a hazard Figure 1.3 : Site after pressures from population growth and urbanization 5
  • 12. Natural Hazards & Disaster Managementwill not merely lie in the physical components safe areas and their houses are built withof vulnerability but also on the socio- stronger materials. However, even wheneconomic conditions. The socio-economic everything is destroyed they have thecondition of the people also determines the capacity to cope up with it.intensity of the impact. For example, peoplewho are poor and living in the sea coast don’t Hazards are always prevalent, but thehave the money to construct strong concrete hazard becomes a disaster only when therehouses. They are generally at risk and is greater vulnerability and less of capacityloose their shelters when ever there is to cope with it. In other words the frequencystrong wind or cyclone. Because of their or likelihood of a hazard and the vulnerabilitypoverty they too are not able to rebuild their of the community increases the risk of beinghouses. severely affected.What is capacity ? What is risk ?Capacity can be defined as “resources, Risk is a “measure of the expected lossesmeans and strengths which exist in due to a hazard event occurring in a givenhouseholds and communities and which area over a specific time period. Risk is aenable them to cope with, withstand, function of the probability of particularprepare for, prevent, mitigate or quickly hazardous event and the losses eachrecover from a disaster”. People’s capacity would cause.” The level of risk dependscan also be taken into account. Capacities upon:could be: y Nature of the hazardPhysical Capacity: People whose houses y Vulnerability of the elements which arehave been destroyed by the cyclone or crops affectedhave been destroyed by the flood cansalvage things from their homes and from y Economic value of those elementstheir farms. Some family members have A community/locality is said to be at ‘risk’skills, which enable them to find employment when it is exposed to hazards and isif they migrate, either temporarily or likely to be adversely affected by itspermanently. impact. Whenever we discuss ‘disasterSocio-economic Capacity: In most of the management’ it is basically ‘disaster riskdisasters, people suffer their greatest losses management’. Disaster risk managementin the physical and material realm. Rich includes all measures which reduce disasterpeople have the capacity to recover soon related losses of life, property or assets bybecause of their wealth. In fact, they are either reducing the hazard or vulnerabilityseldom hit by disasters because they live in of the elements at risk. 6
  • 13. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management Disaster Risk Reduction can take place in the following ways: 1. Preparedness This protective process embraces measures which enable governments, communities and individuals to respond rapidly to disaster situations to cope with them effectively. Preparedness includes the formulation of viable emergency plans, the development of warning systems, the maintenance of inventories and the training of personnel. It may also embrace search and rescue measures as well as evacuation plans for areas that may be at risk from a recurring disaster. Preparedness therefore encompasses those measures taken before a disaster event which are aimed at minimising loss of life, disruption of critical services, and damage when the disaster occurs. 2. Mitigation Mitigation embraces measures taken to reduce both the effect of the hazard and the vulnerable conditions to it in order to reduce the scale of a future disaster. Therefore mitigation activities can be focused on the hazard itself or the elements exposed to the threat. Examples of mitigation measures which are hazard specific include water management in drought prone areas, relocating people away from the hazard prone areas and by strengthening structures to reduce damage when a hazard occurs. In addition to these physical measures, mitigation should also aim at reducing the economic and social vulnerabilities of potential disastersDisaster Management Cycle community level etc. Such risk reduction measures taken under this stage are termedDisaster Risk Management includes sum as mitigation and preparedness activities.total of all activities, programmes andmeasures which can be taken up before, 2. During a disaster (disasterduring and after a disaster with the purpose occurrence).to avoid a disaster, reduce its impact orrecover from its losses. The three key stages Initiatives taken to ensure that the needs andof activities that are taken up within disaster provisions of victims are met and suffering isrisk management are: minimized. Activities taken under this stage are called emergency response activities.1. Before a disaster (pre-disaster). 3. After a disaster (post-disaster)Activities taken to reduce human andproperty losses caused by a potential Initiatives taken in response to a disasterhazard. For example carrying out aware- with a purpose to achieve early recovery andness campaigns, strengthening the existing rehabilitation of affected communities,weak structures, preparation of the disaster immediately after a disaster strikes. These aremanagement plans at household and called as response and recovery activities. 7
  • 14. Natural Hazards & Disaster ManagementReference: Are you prepared? Learning from the Great Hanshin-AwajiEarthquake Disaster - Handbook for Disaster Reduction and Volunteer activities Figure 1.4 : Disaster ManagementIn the subsequent chapters we would Times of Disaster. UNESCO and West view Press, Inc., Colorado.discuss in detail some of the major hazardsprevalent in our country its causes, impact, 3. Anderson M. Vulnerability to Disaster andpreparedness and mitigation measures that Sustainable Development: A Generalneed to be taken up. Framework for Assessing Vulnerability. 4. UNDP Disaster Management TrainingReference for further reading: Programme.1992. An Overview of Disaster Management.1. Reading materials of 11th Community Based 5. International Federation of Red Crescent Disaster Risk Management Course, Societies World Disaster Report: Focus on Bangkok, Thailand July 21 – August 1, 2003. Community resilience.2. Anderson, M. and P. Woodrow. 1989. Rising 6. http://www.unisdr.org/eng/library/lib- from the Ashes: Development Strategies in terminology 8
  • 15. Natural Hazards & Disaster ManagementExercise 3) Define risk and suggest two ways of reducing risk with appropriate1) Explain with examples the difference examples. between hazard, and vulnerability. How does capacity influence vulnerability? 4) Briefly discuss the Disaster2) Explain in detail the vulnerability Management Cycle with suitable profile of our country. examples. 9
  • 16. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management Chapter 2 NATURAL HAZARDS - CAUSES, DISTRIBUTION PATTERN, CONSEQUENCE, AND MITIGATION MEASURESThe discussion on various terminologies has kilometers under the sea to 65 kilometershelped us in having a basic understanding under the continents. The crust is not oneof disaster management. However, each piece but consists of portions called ‘plates’hazard has its own characteristics. To which vary in size from a few hundred tounderstand the significance and implications thousands of kilometers (Fig 2.1.1). Theof various types of hazards we must have a ‘theory of plate tectonics’ holds that thebasic understanding about the nature, plates ride up on the more mobile mantle,causes and effects of each hazard type and and are driven by some yet unconfirmedthe mitigation measures that need to be mechanisms, perhaps thermal convectiontaken up. In this chapter, we would discuss currents. When these plates contact eachthe following hazards namely earthquake, other, stress arises in the crust (Fig 2.1.2).tsunami, landslide, flood, cyclone anddrought that we normally face in our country. These stresses can be classified according to the type of movement along the plate’s boundaries: 2.1 Earthquake a) pulling away from each other,Earthquake is one of the most destructive b) pushing against one another andnatural hazard. They may occur at any time c) sliding sideways relative to each other.of the year, day or night, with sudden impactand little warning. They can destroy buildings All these movements are associated withand infrastructure in seconds, killing or earthquakes.injuring the inhabitants. Earthquakes notonly destroy the entire habitation but may The areas of stress at plate boundariesde-stabilize the government, economy and which release accumulated energy bysocial structure of the country. But what is slipping or rupturing are known as faults.an earthquake? It is the sudden shaking of The theory of elasticity says that the crustthe earth crust. The impact of an earthquake is continuously stressed by the movementis sudden and there is hardly any warning, of the tectonic plates; it eventually reachesmaking it impossible to predict. a point of maximum supportable strain. A rupture then occurs along the fault and theCause of Earthquake : rock rebounds under its own elastic stresses until the strain is relieved. The fault ruptureThe earth’s crust is a rocky layer of varying generates vibration called seismic (from thethickness ranging from a depth of about 10 Greek seismos meaning shock or 10
  • 17. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management Fig. : 2.1.1 : Tectonic PlatesSeven major plates and several minor ones- They move a few inches a year, riding on semi-molten layers of rock underneath the crust Fig. : 2.1.2 : Tectonic Plates 11
  • 18. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management Table 2.1.1 Different types of plate movement Plate Motions Examples Illustrations Divergent - where new The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, crust is generated as the which splits nearly the entire plates pull away from each Atlantic Ocean north to other. south, is probably the best- known and most-studied example of a divergent-plate boundary. The rate of spreading along the Mid- Atlantic Ridge averages about 2.5 centimeters per year (cm/yr), or 25 km in a million years. Mid Atlantic Ridge 2. Convergent - where Ring of Fire and The crust is destroyed as one Himalayan mountain range plate dives under another. dramatically demonstrates one of the most visible and spectacular consequences of plate tectonics. 3. Transformational - where The San Andreas fault crust is neither produced slicing through the Carrizo nor destroyed as the plates Plain in the Temblor Range slide horizontally past each east of the city of San Luis other. Obispo San Andreas fault, California, U.S.A 12
  • 19. Natural Hazards & Disaster Managementearthquake) waves, which radiates from the ♦ Deep:- 300 to 700 kms from the earthfocus in all directions. surfaceThe point of rupture is called the focus and ♦ Medium:- 60 to 300 kmsmay be located near the surface or deepbelow it. The point on the surface directly ♦ Shallow: less than 60 kmsabove the focus is termed as the epicenter The deep focus earthquakes are rarelyof the earthquake (see Fig 2.1.3). destructive because by the time the waves reach the surface the impact reduces. Shallow focus earthquakes are more common and are extremely damaging because of their proximity to the surface. Measuring Earthquakes Earthquakes can be described by the use of two distinctively different scales of measurement demonstrating magnitude and intensity. Earthquake magnitude or Fig 2.1.3 amount of energy released is determined by the use of a seismograph’ which is anGeneral characteristics instrument that continuously records ground vibration. The scale was developed by aEarthquake vibrations occur in a variety of seismologist named Charles Richter. Anfrequencies and velocities. The actual earthquake with a magnitude 7.5 on therupture process may last for a few seconds Richter scale releases 30 times the energyto as long as one minute for a major than one with 6.5 magnitudes. An earthquakeearthquake. The ground shaking is caused of magnitude 3 is the smallest normally feltby ‘body waves’ and ‘surface wave’. by humans. The largest earthquake that has been recorded with this system is 9.25Body waves (P and S waves) penetrate (Alaska, 1969 and Chile, 1960).the body of the earth, vibrating fast. ‘P’waves travel about 6 kilometers per hour The second type of scale, the earthquakeand ‘S’ waves travel with a speed of 4 intensity scale measures the effects of ankilometers per hour. earthquake where it occurs. The most widely used scale of this type was developed in 1902Surface waves vibrate the ground by Mercalli an Italian seismologist. The scalehorizontally and vertically. These long was extended and modified to suit the modernperiod waves cause swaying of tall buildings times. It is called the Modified Mercalli Scale,and slight waves motion in bodies of water which expresses the intensity of earthquakeeven at great distances from the epicenter. effect on people, structure and the earth’s surface in values from I to XII. With an intensityEarthquakes can be of three types based of VI and below most of the people can feelon the focal depth: the shake and there are cracks on the walls, 13
  • 20. Natural Hazards & Disaster Managementbut with an intensity of XII there is general down of communication facilities. The effectpanic with buildings collapsing totally and there of an earthquake is diverse. There are largeis a total disruption in normal life. number of casualties because of the poor engineering design of the buildings andPredictability: Although some scientists claim close proximity of the people. About 95 perability to predict earthquakes, the methods are cent of the people who are killed or who arecontroversial. Accurate and exact predictions affected by the earthquake is because ofof such sudden incidents are still not possible. the building collapse. There is also a huge loss to the public health system, transportTypical adverse effects and communication and water supply in the affected areas.Physical damage: Distribution pattern of Earthquakes in India India falls quite prominently on the Alpine - Himalayan Belt. This belt is the line along which the Indian plate meets the Eurasian plate. This being a convergent plate, the Indian plate is thrusting underneath the Eurasian plate at a speed of 5 cm per year. The movement gives rise to tremendous stress which keeps accumulating in the rocks and is released from time to time inFig 2.1.4 shows the adverse effect s of an earthquake the form of earthquakes.Damage occurs to human settlement,buildings, structures and infrastructure,especially bridges, elevated roads, railways,water towers, pipelines, electrical generatingfacilities. Aftershocks of an earthquake cancause much greater damage to alreadyweakened structures.Secondary effects include fires, dam failure Fig 2.1.5: Fault line in Indiaand landslides which may block water waysand also cause flooding. Damage may occurto facilities using or manufacturingdangerous materials resulting in possiblechemical spills. There may also be a break Fig 2.1.5 Fault lines in India 14
  • 21. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management Table 2.1.2: List of significant Earthquakes in India Year Location Magnitude of 6+ 1950 Arunachal Pradesh - China Border 8.5 1956 Anjar, Gujarat 7.0 1967 Koyna, Maharashtra 6.5 1975 Kinnaur, Himachal Pradesh 6.2 1988 Manipur - Myanmar Boarder 6.6 1988 Bihar - Nepal Border 6.4 1991 Uttarkashi - Uttar Pradesh Hills 6.0 1993 Latur - Maharashtra 6.3 1997 Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 6.0 1999 Chamoli, Uttar Pradesh 6.8 2001 Bhuj, Gujarat 6.9 2005 Muzaffarabad (Pakistan) Impact in 7.4 Jammu & KashmirThe seismic zoning map of India is divided earthquakes. Much of India lies in zone III.into four zones namely Zone II, III, IV and V, New Delhi the capital city of India lie in zonewith zone V shown in red colour in IV where as big cities like Mumbai andfigure 2.1.6 being most vulnerable to Chennai are in zone III. Fig: 2.1.6 15
  • 22. Natural Hazards & Disaster ManagementPossible risk reduction measures: earthquake and preparedness measures. It can be created through sensitization andCommunity preparedness: Community training programme for community,preparedness is vital for mitigating architects, engineers, builders, masons,earthquake impact. The most effective way teachers, government functionariesto save you even in a slightest shaking is teachers and students.DROP, COVER and HOLD. Engineered structures: Buildings needPlanning: The Bureau of Indian Standards to be designed and constructed as per thehas published building codes and guidelines building by laws to withstand groundfor safe construction of buildings against shaking. Architectural and engineeringearthquakes. Before the buildings are inputs need to be put together to improveconstructed the building plans have to be building design and construction practices.checked by the Municipality, according to The soil type needs to be analyzed beforethe laid down bylaws. Many existing lifeline construction. Building structures on softbuildings such as hospitals, schools and fire soil should be avoided. Buildings on softstations may not be built with earthquake soil are more likely to get damaged evensafety measures. Their earthquake safety if the magnitude of the earthquake is notneeds to be upgraded by retrofittingtechniques. strong as shown in Figure 2.1.7. Similar problems persist in the buildingsPublic education is educating the public constructed on the river banks which haveon causes and characteristics of an alluvial soil. Effect of Soil type on ground shaking Essential requirements in a Masonry building Fig: 2.1.7 16
  • 23. Natural Hazards & Disaster ManagementWeb Resources: 2.2 Tsunami§ www.nicee.org: Website of The National The term Tsunami has been derived from Information Center of Earthquake Engineering (NICEE) hosted at Indian a Japanese term Tsu meaning harbor and Institute of Technology Kanpur (IITK) is nami meaning waves. Tsunamis are intended to collect and maintain information popularly called tidal waves but they resources on Earthquake Engineer-ing and actually have nothing to do with the tides. make these available to the interested professionals, researche-rs, academicians These waves which often affect distant and others with a view to mitigate shores, originate by rapid displacement of earthquake disasters in India. The host also water from the lake or the sea either by gives IITK-BMTPC Earthquake Tips. seismic activity, landslides, volcanic§ www.imd.ernet.in/section/seismo/static/ eruptions or large meteoroid impacts. welcome.htm Earthquake Information – What ever the cause may be sea water is India Meteorological Department, India. IMD displaced with a violent motion and swells detects and locates earthquakes and evaluates seismicity in different parts of the up, ultimately surging over land with great country. destructive power. The effects of a tsunami can be unnoticeable or even§ www.bmtpc.org In order to bridge the gap destructive. between research and development and large scale application of new building material technologies, the erstwhile Ministry Causes of a Tsunami of Urban Development, Government of India, had established the Building Materials The geological movements that cause And Technology Promotion Council in July tsunamis are produced in three major 1990. ways. The most common of these are fault§ www.earthquake.usgs.gov Source for movements on the sea floor , accom- science about the Earth, its natural and living panied by an earth-quake. They release resources, natural hazards, and the huge amount of energy and have the environment. capacity to cross oceans. The degree ofExercise: movement depends on how fast the earthquake occurs and how much water1. What are earthquakes ? List out the is displaced. Fig 3.1 shows how an causes of an earthquake. earthquake causes tsunami.2. Differentiate between magnitude and The second most common cause of the intensity of an earthquake. How are tsunami is a landslide either occurring under they measured ? water or originating above the sea and then3. Identify three major mitigation plunging into the water. The largest tsunami measures to reduce earthquake risk. ever produced by a landslide was in Lituya 17
  • 24. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management Fig 2.2.2 Picture of a Tsunami General Characteristics: Tsunami differs from ordinary ocean waves, which are produced by wind blowing over water. The tsunamis travel much faster than ordinary waves. Compared to normal wave speed of 100 kilometers per hour, tsunami in the deep water of the ocean may travel the speed of a jet airplane - 800 kilometers per hour! And yet, in spite of their speed, tsunami increases the water height only 30-45cm and often passes unnoticed by ships at sea. Fig 3.1 An Earthquake causing Tsunami Contrary to the popular belief, the tsunamiBay, Alaska 1958. The massive rock slide is not a single giant wave. It is possible for a tsunami to consist of ten or more wavesproduced a wave that reached a high water which is then termed as tsunami wave train.mark of 50 - 150 meters above the shoreline. The waves follow each other 5 to 90 minutesThe third major cause of tsunami is volcanic apart. Tsunami normally causes flooding asactivity. The flank of a volcano located near a huge wall of water enters the main land.the shore or under water may be uplifted ordepressed similar to the action of a fault, or, Predictability:the volcano may actually explode. In 1883, There are two distinct types of tsunamithe violent explosion of the famous volcano, warning:Krakotoa in Indonesia, produced tsunami a) International tsunami warning systemsmeasuring 40 meters which crushed upon andJava and Sumatra. Over 36,000 people losttheir lives in this tyrant waves. b) Regional warning systems. 18
  • 25. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management In 1995 the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) began developing the Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) system. By 2001 six stations had been deployed in the Pacific Ocean. Each station consists of a sea bed bottom pressure recorder (at a depth of about 6000 m) which detects the passage of a tsunami and transmits the data to aFig 2.2.3 Flooding caused by the 2004 Tsunami in surface buoy. The surface buoy thenTamil Nadu radios the information to the PTWC.Tsunamis have occurred in all the oceans In India, the Survey of India maintains aand in the Mediterranean Sea, but the great tide gauge network along the coast of India.majority of them have occurred in the Pacific The gauges are located in major ports asOcean. Since scientists cannot exactly shown in the figure 2.2.4. The day-to-daypredict earthquakes, they also cannot maintenance of the gauge is carried with theexactly predict when a tsunami will be assistance from authorities of the ports.generated.a) International Tsunami Warning Systems: Shortly after the Hilo Tsunami (1946), the Pacific Tsunami Warning System (PTWS) was developed with its operational center at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) near Honolulu, Hawaii. The PTWC is able to alert countries several hours before the tsunami strikes. The warning includes predicted arrival time at selected coastal communities where the tsunami could travel in few hours. A tsunami watch is issued with subsequent arrival time to other Fig. 2.2.4 : Tide gauge network in India geographic areas. Apart from the tide gauge, tsunami can beb) Regional Warning Systems usually detected with the help of radars. The 2004 use seismic data about nearby Indian Ocean tsunami, recorded data from earthquakes to determine if there is a four radars and recorded the height of possible local threat of a tsunami. Such tsunami waves two hours after the systems are capable enough to earthquake. It should be noted that the provide warnings to the general public satellites observations of the Indian Ocean in less than 15 minutes. tsunami would not have been of any use in 19
  • 26. Natural Hazards & Disaster Managementdelivering warnings, as the data took five Tsunami - A Terrorhours to process and it was pure chancethat the satellites were overhead at that time. The year 2004 has come to an end.However, in future it is possible that the A memorable year it has been.space-based observation might play a direct Ups and downs and highs and lowsrole in tsunami warning. in the past year we have seen.Typical adverse effects: The year went by smoothly but came to a crashing end.Local tsunami events or those less than 30minutes from the source cause the majority Natures fury shattered the life of so manyof damage. The force of the water can raze Broken pieces we are still to mend.everything in its path. It is normally the Tsunami - a huge tidal waveflooding affect of the tsunami that causes swept over the life of all.major destruction to the human settlements, Natures wrath spared noneroads and infrastructure thereby disruptingthe normal functioning of the society. Mankind suffered a great fall. Thousands of homes were destroyedWithdrawal of the tsunami causes majordamage. As the waves withdraw towards Thousands of lives were taken.the ocean they sweep out the foundations We have taken nature for grantedof the buildings, the beaches get destroyed and a heavy price we have forsaken.and the houses carried out to sea. Damageto ports and airports may preventimportation of needed food and medical The aftershocks of the disastersupplies. Apart from the physical damage, We are still enduring.there is a huge impact on the public health The ones alive are being given helpsystem. Deaths mainly occur because of Their pains we are curing.drowning as water inundates homes. Many In the history of mankindpeople get washed away or crushed by thegiant waves and some are crushed by the This blemish will remain forever.debris, causes. When reminded of this grave calamityThere are very few evidences which show The world will always shiver.that tsunami flooding has caused large scale The wounds will take time to healhealth problem. This disaster will always remain in our mind.Availability of drinking water has alwaysbeen a major problem in areas affected by But we will stand up with a smilea disaster. Sewage pipes may be damaged And walk ahead leaving this terrorcausing major sewage disposal problems. behind.Open wells and other ground water may be Ashwathi Thampicontaminated by salt water and debris and J.K. Singhania Schoolsewage. Flooding in the locality may lead (Standard VIII), Thaneto crop loss, loss of livelihood like boats andnets, environmental degradation etc. 20
  • 27. Natural Hazards & Disaster ManagementDistribution pattern of Tsunami in their effectiveness has been questioned, asIndia: tsunamis are often higher than the barriers. For instance, the tsunami which hit the islandEven though India has not faced frequent of Hokkaido on July 12, 1993 created wavesTsunamis but there is a need to identify the as much as 30m (100 ft) tall - as high as aareas that are generally affected by Tsunamis. 10-story building. The port town of AonaeThe whole of the Indian coastal belt is prone on Hokkaido was completely surrounded byto Tsunami. Table 2.2.1 shows incidents of a tsunami wall, but the waves washed righttsunamis that have affected our country. over the wall and destroyed all the wood- Table 2.2.1: History of tsunami’s in IndiaDate Location Impact1524 Near Dabhol, Maharashtra Sufficient data not available02 April 1762 Arakan Coast, Myanmar Sufficient data not available16 June 1819 Rann of Kachchh, Gujarat Sufficient data not available31 October 1847 Great Nicobar Island Sufficient data not available31 December 1881 An earthquake of 7.9 in the Entire east coast of India and Richter scale in Car Nicobar Andaman & Nicobar Islands; Island 1m tsunamis were recorded at Chennai.26 August 1883 Explosion of the Krakatoa volcano East coast of India was affected; in Indonesian. 2m tsunamis were recorded at Chennai.26 June 1941 An 8.1 Richter scale earthquake in East coast of India was affected the Andaman archipelago. but no estimates of height of the tsunami is available27 November 1945 An 8.5 Richter scale earthquake at West coast of India from north to a distance of about 100km south Karwar was affected; 12m tsunami of Karachi was felt at Kandla.26 December 2004 Banda Aceh, Indonesia; Tamil Nadu, The East cost of India was affected. Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Andaman The waves measured around 10 m and Nicobar Islands, India; Sri Lanka; high killing more than 10,000 precious Thailand; Malaysia; Kenya; Tanzania lives.Possible risk reduction measures:While it is of course not possible to preventa tsunami, in certain tsunami pronecountries some measures have been takento reduce the damage caused on shore.Japan has implemented an extensiveprogramme of building tsunami walls of upto 4.5m (13.5 ft) high in front of populatedcoastal areas. Other localities have builtflood gates and channels to redirect thewater from incoming tsunamis. However, Fig 2.2.5 Tsunami walls in populated coastal areas of Japan 21
  • 28. Natural Hazards & Disaster Managementframed structures in the area. The wall may - In areas where it is not feasible tohave succeeded in slowing down and restrict land to open-space uses, othermoderating the height of the tsunami but it land use planning measures can bedid not prevent major destruction and loss used. These include strategicallyof life. controlling the type of development and uses allowed in hazard areas, andSome other systematic measures to protect avoiding high-value and high-coastlines against tsunamis include: occupancy uses to the greatest degree possible.Site Planning and Land Management-Within the broader framework of a Engineering structures – Most of thecomprehensive plan, site planning habitation of the fishing community is seendetermines the location, configuration, and in the coastal areas. The housesdensity of development on particular sites constructed by them are mainly of lightand is, therefore, an important tool in weight materials without any engineeringreducing tsunami risk. inputs. Therefore there is an urgent need to educate the community about the good construction practices that they should adopt such as: Fig 2.2.7 Design solution to tsunami effectFig 2.2.6 Damaged houses constructed on the seacoast in Chennai- The designation and zoning of tsunami • Site selection – Avoid building or living hazard areas for such open-space in buildings within several hundred feet uses as agriculture, parks and of the coastline as these areas are recreation, or natural hazard areas is more likely to experience damage from recommended as the first land use tsunamis. planning strategy. This strategy is • Construct the structure on a higher designed to keep development at a ground level with respect to mean sea minimum in hazard areas. level. 22
  • 29. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management• Elevate coastal homes: Most tsunami Exercise: waves are less than 3 meters in height. Elevating house will help reduce 1. What is Tsunami? Identify three damage to property from most causes, consequences and impact of tsunamis. tsunami waves.• Construction of water breakers to 2. How can we predict Tsunami? reduce the velocity of waves. 3. Suggest five risk reduction measures• Use of water and corrosion resistant that can be taken up to prevent severe materials for construction. damage.• Construction of community halls at 2.3 CYCLONE higher locations, which can act as shelters at the time of a disaster. What is a Cyclone?Flood management - Flooding will result Cyclone is a region of low atmosphericfrom a tsunami. Tsunami waves will flood pressure surrounded by high atmosphericthe coastal areas. Flood mitigation pressure resulting in swirling atmosphericmeasures could be incorporated. disturbance accompanied by powerful winds blowing in anticlockwise direction in theWeb Resources: Northern Hemisphere and in the clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere. They§ http://ioc.unesco.org/itsu/ IOC/UNESCO International Coordination group for the occur mainly in the tropical and temperate Tsunami Warning System in the Pacific (ICG/ regions of the world. Cyclones are called ITSU), Paris, France by various names in different parts of the world as mentioned in box on the next page.§ http://quake.usgs.gov/tsunami/ Tsunamis and Earthquakes, USGS, USA General Characteristics:§ www.asc-india.org Amateur Seismic Centre is a comprehensive website carrying details Cyclones in India are moderate in nature. of state wise seismicity for the country. This Some of the general characteristics of a also has extensive reports on various past cyclone are: Earthquakes/Tsunamis.§ http://www.prh.noaa.gov/pr/itic/ International 1. Strong winds Tsunami Information Center, Honolulu, Hawaii 2. Exceptional rain§ http://www.tsunami.org/ Pacific Tsunami Museum site. Includes answers to frequently 3. Storm surge asked questions, links, and information related to Pacific Ocean tsunamis. Cyclones are generally accompanied by 23
  • 30. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management Cyclones are known by different names in different parts of the world: ♦ Typhoons in the Northwest Pacific Ocean west of the dateline ♦ Hurricanes in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Northeast Pacific Ocean east of the dateline, or the South Pacific Ocean. ♦ Tropical cyclones - the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Southeast Indian Ocean. ♦ Severe cyclonic storm” (the North Indian Ocean) ♦ Tropical cyclone (the Southwest Indian Ocean) Fig 2.3.2 Stages of cyclone formation ♦ Willie-Willie in Australia ♦ Tornado in South Americastrong winds which cause a lot of storm travelled more than 250 km inland anddestruction. In some cases it is within a period of 36 hrs ravaged more thanaccompanied by heavy downpour and also 200 lakh hectares of land, devouring treesthe rise in the sea which intrudes inland and vegetation, leaving behind a huge trailthere by causing floods. of destruction. The violent cyclone was merciless and broke the backbone of Orissa’s economy and killed thousands and devastated millions. The development of a cyclone covers three stages namely a) Formation and initial development state: Four atmospheric/ oceanic conditions are necessary for the formation of a cyclone namely: ♦ A warm sea temperature in Fig 2.3.1 Orissa Super Cyclone excess of 26 degree centigrade,29th October 1999, Super-cyclone with wind to a depth of 60 meters, whichspeed of 260-300 km/hour hit the 140 provides abundant water vapour in the air by evaporation.kilometer coast of Orissa with a storm surgecreated in the Bay-of-Bengal with water level ♦ High relative humidity (degree to9 metres higher than normal. The super which the air is saturated by 24
  • 31. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management water vapor) of the atmosphere cumulus thundercloud bands. These to a height of about 7000 meters, bands spiral inwards and form a dense facilitates condensation of water highly active central cloud core which vapor into droplets and clouds, raps around a relatively calm zone. releases heat energy and This is called the “eye” of a cyclone. induces drop in pressure. The eye looks like a black hole or a dot surrounded by thick clouds. The ♦ Atmospheric instability (an above outer circumference of the thick cloud average decrease of tempera- is called the ‘eye wall’. ture with altitude) encourages considerable vertical cumulus c) Weakening or decay: A tropical cloud convection when conden- cyclone begins to weaken as soon as sation of rising air occurs. its source of warm moist air is abruptly cut off. This is possible when the ♦ A location of at least 4-5 latitude cyclone hits the land, on the cyclone degrees from the Equator allow moves to a higher altitude or when the influence of the force due to there is the interference of another low the earth’s rotation (Coriolis pressure. force) to take effect in inducing cyclonic wind circulation around Depending on their track on the warm low pressure centers. tropical sea and proximity to land a cyclone may last for less than 24 hours to more than 3 weeks. On an average the life cycle of a cyclone (a cyclone to complete these three stages mentioned above) takes six days. The longest cyclone is typhoon John which lasted for 31 days (August to September, 1994 in the north east and north west pacific basins). Indian Cyclones Cyclones vary in frequency in various parts of the world. The 7516.6 kilometers long Indian coastline is the earth’s most cyclone battered stretch of the world. Around 8 per cent of the total land area in India is prone to cyclones. About two-third of the cyclones that occur in the Indian coastline occur in the Bay of Bengal. The states which are Fig 2.3.3 Cyclone formation generally affected in the east coast areb) Fully matured: The main feature of a West-Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh; fully mature tropical cyclone is a spiral Tamil Nadu and on the west coast Gujarat, pattern of highly turbulent giant Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala. 25
  • 32. Natural Hazards & Disaster ManagementDistributional Pattern: damage. The satellites track the movement of these cyclones based on which the peopleThe map of India (Fig 2.3.4) shows the areas are evacuated from areas lively to bethat are generally affected by strong winds/ affected. It is difficult to predict the accuracy.cyclones. Some of the major cyclones that Accurate landfall predictions can give onlyhave affected the country in the past are as a few hours’ notice to threatened population.mentioned in table 2.3.1 India has one of the best cyclone warning systems in the world. The India Meteorological Department (IMD) is the nodal department for wind detection, tracking and forecasting cyclones. Cyclone tracking is done through INSAT satellite. Cyclone warning is disseminated by several means such as satellite based disaster warning systems, radio, television, telephone, fax, high priority telegram, public announcements and bulletins in press. These warnings are disseminated to the general public, the fishing community Fig 2.3.4 Wind and Cyclone map of India Table 2.3.1: Death associate with noteworthy Tropical Cyclones (1970 – 2005) Sl No Year Area Death toll 1 1971 Eastern Coast 9658 2 1972 Andhra Pradesh and Orissa 100 3 1977 Chennai, kerala & Andhra Pradesh 14,204 4 1979 Andhra Pradesh 594 5 1981 Gujarat 470 6 1982 Gujarat & Maharashtra 500 7 1984 Tamil Nadu & Andhra Pradesh 512 8 1985 Andhra Pradesh 5000 9 1990 Andhra Pradesh 957 10 1990 Orissa 250 11 1999 Orissa 8913(Source: Office of the US Foreign Disaster Assistance)Warning: especially those in the sea, port authorities, commercial aviation and the governmentLow pressure and the development can be machinery.detected hours or days before it causes 26
  • 33. Natural Hazards & Disaster ManagementElements at Risk: Strong winds, torrential Water supplies – Ground and pipe waterrains and flooding cause a huge loss to life supply may get contaminated by floodand property. The 1999 Super Cyclone of waters.Orissa killed more than 10,000 preciouslives with women and children greatly Crops and food supplies – high winds andaffected. Apart from loss to life there is a rains ruin the standing crop and food stockhuge loss to infrastructures like houses built lying in low lying areas. Plantation type cropsof mud, older buildings with weak walls, such as banana and coconut are extremelybridges, settlements in low lying areas. vulnerable. Salt from the sea water may get deposited on the agricultural land andTypical Adverse effect: increase the salinity. The loss of the crop may lead to acute food shortage.First, in a sudden, brief onslaught, highwinds cause major damage to infrastructure Communication – severe disruption in the communication links as the wind may bringand housing, in particular fragile down the electricity and communicationconstructions. They are generally followed towers, telephone poles, telephone lines,by heavy rains and floods and, in flat coastal antennas and satellite disk and broadcastingareas by storm surge riding on tidal waves services. Transport lines (road and rail) mayand inundating the land over long distances be curtailed, Lack of proper communicationof even upto 15 kilometer inland. affects effective distribution of relief materials. Possible Risk Reduction Meas- ures: Coastal belt plantation - green belt plantation along the coastal line in a scientific interweaving pattern can reduce the effect of the hazard. Providing a cover through green belt sustains less damage. Forests act as a 2.3.5 Mangrove plantation on the coastal belt wide buffer zone against strong winds and flash floods. Without the forest the cyclonePhysical damage – structures will be travel freely inland. The lack of protective forestdamaged or destroyed by the wind force, cover allows water to inundate large areas andflooding and storm surge. Light pitched roofs cause destruction. With the loss of the forestof most structures especially the ones fitted cover each consecutive cyclone can penetrateon to industrial buildings will suffer severe further inland.damage. Hazard mapping – Meteorological recordsCasualties and public heath – caused by of the wind speed and the directions giveflooding and flying elements, contamination the probability of the winds in the region.of water supplies may lead to viral Cyclones can be predicted several days inoutbreaks, diarrhea, and malaria. advance. The onset is extensive and often 27
  • 34. Natural Hazards & Disaster Managementvery destructive. Past records and paths can plains is at utmost risk. Siting of key facilitiesgive the pattern of occurrence for particular must be marked in the land use. Policieswind speeds. A hazard map will illustrate should be in place to regulate land use andthe areas vulnerable to cyclone in any given building codes should be enforced.year. It will be useful to estimate the severityof the cyclone and various damage Engineered structures – structures needintensities in the region. The map is to be built to withstand wind forces. Goodprepared with data inputs of past site selection is also important. Majority ofclimatological records, history of wind the buildings in coastal areas are built withspeed, frequency of flooding etc. Fig.2.3.6 locally available materials and have noshows the wind and cyclone zone map of engineering inputs. Good constructionAndhra Pradesh. practice should be adopted such as: - Cyclonic wind storms inundate the coastal areas. It is advised to construct on stilts or on earth mound. - Houses can be strengthened to resist wind and flood damage. All elements holding the structures need to be properly anchored to resist the uplift or flying off of the objects. For example, avoid large overhangs of roofs, and the projections should be tied down. - A row of planted trees will act as a Fig. 2.3.6 Andhra Pradesh state wind and cyclone zone map shield. It reduces the energy.Land use control designed so that least - Buildings should be wind and watercritical activities are placed in vulnerable resistant.areas. Location of settlements in the flood - Buildings storing food supplies must be protected against the winds and water. - Protect river embankments. Communication lines should be installed underground. - Provide strong halls for community shelter in vulnerable locations.Fig 2.3.7 A shelter with special feature to withstandcyclones and floods. Traditional homes can beimproved by building in disaster resistant features.Such homes could withstand cyclones with moderatespeeds. 28
  • 35. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management If natural elevation is not available construction on Construction at ground level –risk of inundation stilts or on artificially raised earth mounds Large overhangs get lifted and broken. For large overhangs, use ties. Fig. 2.3.8 Safe Construction PracticesFlood management – Torrential rains, prevent or lessen flooding. The use of treestrong wind and storm range leads to planted in rows will act as a windbreak.flooding in the cyclone affected areas. There Coastal shelterbelt plantations can beare possibilities of landslides too. Flood developed to break severe wind speeds. Itmitigation measures could be incorporated minimizes devastating effects. The Orissa(see section on floods for additional calamity has also highlighted the need forinformation). urgent measures like shelterbelt plantation along cyclone-prone coastal areas. SpeciesImproving vegetation cover – The roots chosen for this purpose should not only beof the plants and trees keep the soil intact able to withstand the impact of strongand prevent erosion and slow runoff to cyclonic winds, but also check soil erosion. Web Resources: § www.imd.ernet.in Indian Meteorologi-cal Department (IMD) provides all India weather report, end of monsoon season report, weather charts, satellite images, rainfall maps, earthquake reports and severe weather warnings. IMD provides cyclone warnings from the Area Cyclone Warning Centres (ACWCs) It has developed the necessary infrastructure to originate and disseminate the cyclone warnings at appropriate levels. It has made Fig 2.3.9 Coastal belt plantation operational a satellite based communication 29
  • 36. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management system called Cyclone Warning Dissemination Exercise System for direct dissemination of cyclone warnings to the cyclone prone coastal areas. 1. Explain the characteristics of a cyclone.§ www.ndmindia.nic.in Natural Disaster Management India. Provides current news on 2. Explain in detail the conditions Flood, Drought and Cyclones, Weather Links necessary for the development of a from NIC and weather conditions/ cyclone. temperatures on Indian Ocean (www.weather.nic.in). 3. Identify risk reduction measures for cyclones.§ www.bmtpc.org/disaster.htm In order to bridge the gap between research and development and large scale application of new building material technologies, the erstwhile Ministry 2.4 FLOOD of Urban Development, Government of India, had established the Building Materials And Flood is a state of high water level along a Technology Promotion Council in July 1990. river channel or on the coast that leads to§ www.gsdma.org/cycpre.htm Link to Cyclone inundation of land, which is not usually preparedness on the Gujarat State Disaster submerged. Floods may happen gradually Management Authority website. The and also may take hours or even happen Government of Gujarat (GOG) established the suddenly without any warning due to breach Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority in the embankment, spill over, heavy rains to co-ordinate the comprehensive earthquake recovery program. etc.§ www.osdma.org website of Orissa State There are different types of floods namely: Disaster Mitigation Authority. The Government flash flood, riverine flood, urban flood, etc. of Orissa established the Orissa State Disaster Flash floods can be defined as floods which Management Authority to co-ordinate the occur within six hours of the beginning of comprehensive Orissa Super Cyclone recovery program. Visit the section ‘Safety heavy rainfall, and are usually associated Tips’ for cyclones and other hazards. with cloud bursts, storms and cyclones requiring rapid localized warnings and§ www.tropmet.res.in The IITM functions as a immediate response to reduce damage. national centre for basic and applied research Wireless network and telephone in monsoon meteorology of the tropics in general with special reference to monsoon connections are used to monitor flood meteorology of India and neighborhood. Its conditions. In case of flash floods, warnings primary functions are to promote, guide and for timely evacuation may not always be conduct research in the field of meteorology possible. in all its aspects.§ www.colorado.edu/hazards is an excellent site Causes: having a comprehensive coverage of disaster- related information organized in an easy to There are several causes of floods and differ read way. from region to region. The causes may vary 30
  • 37. Natural Hazards & Disaster Managementfrom a rural area to an urban area. Some of Distributional Pattern of floods inthe major causes are: Indiaa. Heavy rainfall Floods occur in almost all the river basinsb. Heavy siltation of the river bed reduces of the country. The Vulnerability Atlas of the water carrying capacity of the India shows pictorially the areas liable to rivers/stream. floods. Around 12 per cent (40 million hectare) of land in India is prone to floods.c. Blockage in the drains lead to flooding of the area.d. Landslides blocking the flow of the stream.e. Construction of dams and reservoirsf. In areas prone to cyclone, strong winds accompanied by heavy down pour along with storm surge leads to flooding.Typical Adverse Effects:The most important consequence of floodsis the loss of life and property. Structureslike houses, bridges; roads etc. getdamaged by the gushing water, landslidestriggered on account of water gettingsaturated, boats and fishing nets get Fig 2.4.1 Map showing Flood Zones in Indiadamaged. There is huge loss to life and Most of the flood affected areas lie in thelivestock caused by drowning. Lack of Ganga basin, Brahmaputra basinproper drinking water facilities, (comprising of Barak, Tista, Torsa,contamination of water (well, ground water, Subansiri, Sankosh, Dihang and Luhit), thepiped water supply) leads to outbreak of northwestern river basin (comprisingepidemics, diarrhoea, viral infection, malaria Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, Beas and theand many other infectious diseases. Ghagra), peninsular river basin (Tapti,Flooding also leads to a large area of Narmada, Mahanadi, Baitarani, Godavari,agricultural land getting inundated as a result krishna, Pennar and the Kaveri) and thethere is a huge crop loss. This results in coastal regions of Andhra Pradesh,shortage of food, and animal fodder. Floods Tamilnadu, orissa and Kerela. Assam, Uttarmay also affect the soil characteristics. The Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa are some of theland may be rendered infertile due to erosion states who have been severely prone toof top layer or may turn saline if sea water floods. Our country receives an annualfloods the area. 31
  • 38. Natural Hazards & Disaster Managementrainfall of 1200 mm, 85% of which is level rises. Except for flash floods there isconcentrated in 3-4 months i.e June to usually a reasonable warning period. HeavySeptember. Due to the intense and periodic precipitation will give sufficient warning ofrain, most of the rivers of the country are the coming river flood. High tides with highfed with huge quantity of water, much winds may indicate flooding in the coastalbeyond their carrying capacity. areas. Evacuation is possible with suitable monitoring and warning. Warning is issuedTable 2.4.1 below shows some of the major by the Central Water Commission (CWC),floods that have affected the country. Irrigation & Flood Control Department, Table 2.4.1 Death Toll in major floods of India Year Number of Location people killed 1961 2,000 North 1968 4,892 (1) Rajasthan, Gujarat - (2) North-East, West Bengal, Assam 1971 1,023 North India 1978 3,800 North, Northeast 1980 1,600 Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Kerala, Haryana 1989 1,591 Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat 1994 2,001 Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Goa, Kerala, Gujarat states 1995 1,479 Bihar, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra 1997 1,442 Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal states 1998 1,811 Assam, Arunachal, Bihar, Kerala, Meghalaya, Punjab, Sikkim, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal states 2000 1,290 Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, West BengalWarning: and Water Resources Department. CWC maintains close liaison with theFlood forecasting and warning has been administrative and state engineeringhighly developed in the past two decades. agencies, local civil authorities toWith the advancement of technology such communicate advance warning foras satellite and remote-sensing equipments appropriate mitigation and preparednessflood waves can be tracked as the water measures. 32
  • 39. Natural Hazards & Disaster ManagementPossible Risk Reduction Meas-ures:Mapping of the flood prone areas is aprimary step involved in reducing the risk ofthe region. Historical records give theindication of the flood inundation areas andthe period of occurrence and the extent ofthe coverage. Warning can be issued Fig 2.4.3 Khash Dhalai Flood Shelter.looking into the earlier marked heights of the Flood shelters like this are just one example of howwater levels in case of potential threat. In communities can protect themselves from the worst of the floods. Banks of earth are raised by up to 5the coastal areas the tide levels and the land metres and cover an area of several kilometres. Thecharacteristics will determine the people dig a huge pond in the middle and use thissubmergence areas. Flood hazard mapping earth to raise the ground. Whenever the floods come,will give the proper indication of water flow people can bring their livestock, possessions – even their homes – to safety. The pond in the middleduring floods. becomes an important source of food, as it is used to farm fish.Land use control will reduce danger of life Construction of engineered structures inand property when waters inundate the the flood plains and strengthening offloodplains and the coastal areas. The structures to withstand flood forces andnumber of casualties is related to the seepage. The buildings should bepopulation in the area at risk. In areas constructed on an elevated area. Ifwhere people already have built their necessary build on stilts or platform.settlements, measures should be taken torelocate to better sites so as to reduce Flood Control aims to reduce floodvulnerability. No major development should damage. This can be done by decreasingbe permitted in the areas which are the amount of runoff with the help ofsubjected to high flooding. Important reforestation (to increase absorption couldfacilities like hospitals, schools should be be a mitigation strategy in certain areas),built in safe areas. In urban areas, water protection of vegetation, clearing of debrisholding areas can be created like ponds, from streams and other water holding areas,lakes or low-lying areas. conservation of ponds and lakes etc. Flood Diversion include levees, embankments, dams and channel improvement. Dams can store water and can release water at a manageable rate. But failure of dams in earthquakes and operation of releasing the water can cause floods in the lower areas. Flood Proofing reduces the risk of damage. Measures include use of sand bags to keep flood water away, blocking or sealing ofFig 2.4.2 Houses constructed on stilts in slum areas doors and windows of houses etc. Houses 33
  • 40. Natural Hazards & Disaster Managementmay be elevated by building on raised land. § www.nih.ernet.in India National Institute ofBuildings should be constructed away from Hydrology perform tasks such as Ground water zone mapping, Flood plain mapping,water bodies. land use, salinity, sedimentation, Soil erosion, water-logging etc.Flood Management In India, systematicplanning for flood management commencedwith the Five Year Plans, particularly with Exercisethe launching of National Programme of 1. Define Flood. List out some of theFlood Management in 1954. During the last causes and adverse effects of floods.48 years, different methods of floodprotection structural as well as non- 2. Name two basins in India that arestructural have been adopted in different frequently affected by flood and explainstates depending upon the nature of the the warning dissemination system ofproblem and local conditions. Structural India in the flood affected areas.measures include storage reservoirs, floodembankments, drainage channels, anti- 3. Explain in detail atleast five possibleerosion works, channel improvement works, risk reduction measures for floods.detention basins etc. and non-structuralmeasures include flood forecasting, flood 2.5 DROUGHTplain zoning, flood proofing, disasterpreparedness etc. The flood managementmeasures undertaken so far have provided What is Drought?reasonable degree of protection to an area Drought is either absence or deficiency ofof 15.81 million hectares through out the rainfall from its normal pattern in a regioncountry. for an extended period of time leading to general suffering in the society. It is interplayWeb Resources: between demand that people place on natural supply of water and natural event§ www.cwc.nic.in website of the Central Water Commission of India, (CWC) of India. that provides the water in a given geographical region. The state of Kerala§ http://wrmin.nic.in website of the Ministry of which receives more than 3000 mm of Water Resources, GoI. rainfall every year is declared drought§ www.imd.ernet.in Indian Meteorological affected as it is insufficient to have two Department (IMD) provides all India weather good crops. The more the imbalance in report, end of monsoon season report, supply the higher is the drought. The weather charts, satellite images, rainfall maps, following will help explaining this general earthquake reports and severe weather definition of the drought further. warnings.§ www.ndmindia.nic.in Natural Disaster ♦ It is a slow on-set disaster and it is Management India. Provides current news on difficult to demarcate the time of its Flood, Drought and Cyclones, Weather Links onset and the end. from NIC and weather conditions temperatures on Indian Ocean ♦ Any unusual dry period which results (www.weather.nic.in). in a shortage of useful water. 34
  • 41. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management♦ Drought is a normal, recurrent feature What on earth do you know about of climate. Climate is expected to show water? some aberrations and drought is just a part of it. • Approximately 80 per cent of earth’s surface is covered with♦ Drought can occur by improper water but only 1% of it is fresh distribution of rain in time and space, water that we can use. and not just by its amount. • About 2.7 per cent of the total♦ Drought is negative balance between water available on the earth is precipitation and water use (through fresh water of which about 75.2 evaporation, transpiration by plants, per cent lies frozen in Polar domestic and industrial uses etc) in a Regions and another 22.6 per geographical region. cent is present as ground water. The rest is available in lakes,The effects of drought accumulate slowly rivers, atmosphere, moisture, soilover a considerable period of time. and vegetation. This 1% of water is now threatened by pollution!Causes of Drought • Today, we have approximately theCan you think of what causes drought? same amount of water as when the Earth was formed. Earth willThough drought is basically caused by not get/generate any more water!deficit rainfall, which is a meteorologicalphenomenon, it manifests into different • We are using up the fresh waterspheres because of various vulnerability faster than we are recharging our groundwaterfactors associated with them (see the box).Some of these factors are human induced. – Meteorological droughtThough drought is a natural disaster, itseffects are made worst in developing Meteorological drought is simplecountries by over population, over grazing, absence/deficit of rainfall from thedeforestation, soil erosion, excessive use normal. It is the least severe form ofof ground and surface water for growing drought and is often identified by sunnycrops, loss of biodiversity. days and hot weather.General Characteristics: – Hydrological drought– Types of droughts Hydrological drought often leads to reduction of natural stream flows or Drought proceeds in sequential ground water levels, plus stored water manner. Its impacts are spread across supplies. The main impact is on water different domains as listed below. resource systems. 35
  • 42. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management– Agricultural drought Can you think of some more vulnerability factors to drought? This form of drought occurs when ♦ Low soil moisture holding capacity moisture level in soil is insufficient to ♦ Absence of irrigation facilities maintain average crop yields. Initial ♦ Livestock without adequate fodder consequences are in the reduced storage facilities seasonal output of crops and other ♦ Poor water management related production. An extreme ♦ Deforestation agricultural drought can lead to a ♦ Over grazing famine, which is a prolonged shortage ♦ Water consuming cropping patterns of food in a restricted region causing ♦ Excessive ground water draft widespread disease and death from ♦ Soil erosion starvation. ♦ Population growth and urbanization ♦ IndustrializationSocio-economic drought ♦ Global warmingSocio-economic drought correlates the Can you believe it!!!supply and demand of goods and serviceswith the three above-mentioned types of Cherapunji in Meghalaya, which was saiddrought. When the supply of some goods to receive highest rainfall in the world, isor services such as water and electricity are now reeling under acute drinking waterweather dependant then drought may cause problem. This is because of water runoff, denudation and no storage facilities.shortages in supply of these economicgoods. Fig 2.5.1Measuring Drought :Elements at Risk Meteorological DroughtIn general, all those elements that areprimarily dependent on water are mostaffected. It affects the rainfed crops and then Hydrological Droughtslowly creeps into the irrigated crops. Peoplewho are dependent on agriculture and areaswhere the other livelihood opportunities are Agricultural Droughtleast developed are greatly affected. Theherdsman, landless labourer, subsistencefarmers, women, children and farm animalsare the most vulnerable groups. Socio-economic Drought 36
  • 43. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management Drought Mathematics The following criteria have been set by the Indian Meteorological Division (IMD) for identifying the drought. • Onset of drought: Deficiency of a particular year’s rainfall exceeding 25 per cent of normal. • Moderate drought: Deficit of rainfall between 26-50 per cent of normal. • Severe drought: Deficit of rainfall more than 50 per cent of normal. Fig 2.5.2 Map showing drought prone states in India.Typical adverse effects Distribution Pattern Ø Around 68 per cent of India’s total areaDrought, different from any other natural is drought prone to drought.disaster, does not cause any structural Ø 315 out of a total of 725 Talukas in 99damages. As the meteorological drought districts are drought prone.turns into hydrological drought, the impacts Ø 50 million people are annually affected by drought.start appearing first in agriculture which is Ø In 2001 more than eight states sufferedmost dependant on the soil moisture. the impact of severe drought.Irrigated areas are affected much later than Ø In 2003 most parts of Rajasthanthe rainfed areas. However, regions experienced the fourth consecutivesurrounding perennial rivers tend to year of drought.continue normal life even when droughtconditions are prevailing around. The Possible Risk Reduction Meas-impacts slowly spread into social fabric as ures:the availability of drinking water diminishes, There are various mitigation strategies toreduction in energy production, ground cope up with drought.water depletion, food shortage, healthreduction and loss of life, increased 1. Public Awareness and education: Ifpoverty, reduced quality of life and social the community is aware of the do’s and don’ts, then half of the problem isunrest leading to migration. solved. This includes awareness on 37
  • 44. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management the availability of safe drinking water, water conservation techniques, agricultural drought management strategies like crop contingency plans, construction of rain water harvesting structure. Awareness can be generated by the print, electronic and folk media.2. Drought Monitoring: It is continuous Fig. 2.5.3 Rain Water harvesting observation of the rainfall situation, availability of water in the reservoirs, lakes, rivers etc and comparing with the existing water needs in various sectors of the society.3. Water supply augmentation and conservation through rainwater harvesting in houses and farmers’ fields increases the content of water available. Water harvesting by either allowing the runoff water from all the fields to a common point (e.g. Farm ponds, see the picture) or allowing it to infiltrate into the soil where it has fallen (in situ) (e.g. contour bunds, contour cultivation, raised bed planting etc) helps increase water availability Fig 2.5.4 A watershed showing collection of water for sustained agricultural production. to common point.4. Expansion of irrigation facilities reduces the drought vulnerability. Land 6. Drought planning: the basic goal of use based on its capability helps in drought planning is to improve the optimum use of land and water and effectiveness of preparedness and can avoid the undue demand created response efforts by enhancing due to their misuse. monitoring, mitigation and response measures.5. Livelihood planning identifies those livelihoods which are least affected by 7. Planning would help in effective the drought. Some of such livelihoods coordination among state and national include increased off-farm employment agencies in dealing with the drought. opportunities, collection of non-timber Components of drought plan include forest produce from the community establishing drought taskforce which forests, raising goats, carpentry etc. is a team of specialists who can advise 38
  • 45. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management the government in taking decision to started his movement concentrating on deal with drought situation, trapping every drop of rain, which is establishing coordination mechanism basically a drought mitigation practice. among various agencies which deal So the villagers built check dams and with the droughts, providing crop tanks. To conserve soil they planted trees. insurance schemes to the farmers to The result: from 80 acres of irrigated area cope with the drought related crop two decades ago, Ralegan Siddhi has a losses, and public awareness massive area of 1300 acres under generation. irrigation. The migration for jobs has stopped and the per capita income has increased ten times from Rs.225 to 2250 in this span of time. The entire effort was only people’s enterprise and involved no funds or support from the Government. Web Resources: http://dmc.kar.nic.in/default.htm Ralegan, before drought mitigation efforts www. watershedindia.net www.rainwaterharvesting.org www.drought.unl. edu Exercise 1. Why is drought a slow onset disaster? Identify five factors that cause drought. 2. Explain the four different types of drought Ralegan, after drought mitigation efforts 3. Identify the elements that are at risk in Fig 2.5.5 areas that are prone to drought and identify five risk reduction measures What a mitigation approach can to combat drought. do? A success storyThe people of Ralegan Siddhi in 2.6 LANDSLIDEMaharashtra transformed the dire straitsto prosperity. Twenty years ago the What is a landslide?village showed all traits of abject poverty. The term’ landslide’ includes all varieties ofIt practically had no trees, the topsoil had mass movements of hill slopes and can beblown off, there was no agriculture and defined as the downward and outwardpeople were jobless. Anna Hazare, one movement of slope forming materialsof the India’s most noted social activists, composed of rocks, soils, artificial fills or 39
  • 46. Natural Hazards & Disaster Managementcombination of all these materials along Causes of Landslidesurfaces of separation by falling, sliding andflowing, either slowly or quickly from one There are several causes of landslide. Someplace to another. Although the landslides are of the major causes are as follows:primarily associated with mountainous 1. Geological Weak material: Weaknessterrains, these can also occur in areas where in the composition and structure ofan activity such as surface excavations for rock or soil may also cause landslides.highways, buildings and open pit minestakes place. They often take place in 2. Erosion: Erosion of slope toe due toconjunction with earthquakes, floods and cutting down of vegetation,volcanoes. At times, prolonged rainfall construction of roads might increasecausing landslide may block the flow of river the vulnerability of the terrain to slidefor quite some time. The formation of river down.blocks can cause havoc to the settlements 3. Intense rainfall: Storms that producedownstream on its bursting. Some of the intense rainfall for periods as short ascommon definitions are below in table 1. several hours or have a more moderate intensity lasting several days have triggered abundant landslides. Heavy melting of snow in the hilly terrains also results in landslide. 4. Human Excavation of slope and its toe, loading of slope/toe, draw down in reservoir, mining, deforestation, irrigation, vibration/blast, Water Fig 2.6.1 Landslide in hilly terrain of India leakage from services. Table 1 : Definitions Landslide Hazard refers to the potential of occurrence of a damaging landslide within a given area; such damage could include loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption, or environmental degradation. Landslide Vulnerability reflects the extent of potential loss to given elements (or set of elements) within the area affected by the hazard, expressed on a scale of 0 (no loss) to 1 (total loss); vulnerability is shaped by physical, social, economic and environmental conditions. Landslide Risk refers to the probability of harmful consequences-the expected number of lives lost, persons injured, extent of damage to property or ecological systems, or disruption of economic activity –within a landslide prone area. The risk may be individual or societal in scope, resulting from an interaction between the hazard and individual or societal vulnerability. Landslide Risk Evaluation is the application of analyses and judgments (encompassing physical, social, and economic dimensions of landslide vulnerability) to determine risk management alternatives, which may include determination that the landslide risk is acceptable or tolerable. 40
  • 47. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management • Falls: Abrupt movements of materials that become detached from steep slopes or cliffs, moving by free-fall, bouncing, and rolling. • Flows: General term including many types of mass movement, such as debris flow, debris avalanche, lahar, and mudflow. • Creep: Slow, steady downslope movement of soil or rock, often indicated by curved tree trunks, bent fences or retaining walls, tilted poles or fences.Fig 2.6.2 Bhachau Landslide - The land slippedduring the 26th January 2001 earthquake event in • Debris flow Rapid mass movementBhachau. Note that people are still camped beneath. in which loose soils, rocks, and organicMonsoon rains could possibly wash the soil down matter combine with entrained air andslope. water to form slurry that then flows down slope, usually associated with5. Earthquake shaking has triggered steep gullies. landslides in many different • Debris avalanche A variety of very topographic and geologic settings. rapid to extremely rapid debris flow. Rock falls, soil slides and rockslides from steep slopes involving relatively thin or shallow dis-aggregated soils or rock, or both have been the most abundant types of landslides triggered by historical earthquakes.6. Volcanic eruption Deposition of loose volcanic ash on hillsides commonly is followed by accelerated erosion and frequent mud or debris flows triggered by intense rainfall.Type of Landslides:The common types of landslides aredescribed below. These definitions arebased mainly on the work of Varnes(Varnes, D.J., 1978). 41
  • 48. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management• Lahar Mudflow or debris flow that soil and in sloppy areas are also at risk. originates on the slope of a volcano, Roads, communication lines are vulnerable. usually triggered by heavy rainfall eroding volcanic deposits, sudden melting of snow and ice due to heat from volcanic vents, or the breakout of water from glaciers, crater lakes or lakes dammed by volcanic eruptions• Mudflow Rapidly flowing mass of wet material that contains at least 50 per cent sand, silt, and clay-sized particles.• Lateral spreads Often occur on very gentle slopes and result in nearly horizontal movement of earth materials. Lateral spreads usually are Fig 2.6.4 adverse effects of landslide caused by liquefaction, where saturated sediments (usually sands and silts) are transformed from a solid into a liquefied state, usually triggered Distributional Pattern: by an earthquake. Landslides constitute a major natural hazard• Slides Many types of mass movement in our country, which accounts for are included in the general term considerable loss of life and damage to “landslide.” The two major types of communication routes, human settlements, landslides are rotational slides and agricultural fields and forest lands. The translational landslides. Indian subcontinent, with diverse physiographic, seismic, tectonic and• Topple A block of rock that tilts or climatological conditions is subjected to rotates forward and falls, bounces, or varying degree of landslide hazards; the rolls down the slope. Himalayas including Northeastern mountains ranges being the worst affected,Adverse Effects: followed by a section of Western Ghats and the Vindhyas. Removal of vegetation andThe most common elements at risk are the toe erosion have also triggered slides.settlements built on the steep slopes, built Torrential rainfall on the deforested slopesat the toe and those built at the mouth of is the main factor in the Peninsular Indiathe streams emerging from the mountain namely in Western Ghat and Nilgiris. Humanvalley. All those buildings constructed intervention by way of slope modificationwithout appropriate foundation for a given has added to this effect. 42
  • 49. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management measures have been initiated as mitigation measures. Fig. 2.6.6 shows landslide hazard zonation map of India with red being areas more susceptible to landslides than areas depicted in light yellow.Fig 2.6.5 Spots showing major landslides in IndiaOne of the worst tragedies took place atMalpa Uttarkhand (UP) on 11th and 17thAugust 1998 when nearly 380 people werekilled when massive landslides washedaway the entire village. This included 60pilgrims going to Lake Mansarovar in Tibet.Consequently various land management Table 2.6.2 : Some of the major Landslides in the last one decadeOctober 1990 Nilgris 36 people killed and several injured. Several buildings and communication network damagedJuly 1991 Assam 300 people killed, road and buildings damagedNovember 1992 Nilgiris Road network and buildings damaged, Rs.5 million damage estimateJuly 1993 Itanagar 25 people buried alive 2 km road damagedAugust 1993 Kalimpong, 40 people killed, heavy loss of West Bengal propertyAugust 1993 Kohima, 200 houses destroyed, 500 people died, about 5 km Nagaland road stretch was damagedNovember 1993 Nilgris 40 people killed, property worth several lakhs damaged 43
  • 50. Natural Hazards & Disaster Management January 1994 Kashmir National Highway 1A severely damaged June 1994 Varundh ghat, 20 people killed, breaching of ghat road Konkan Coast damaged to the extent of 1km at several places May 1995 Aizwal 25 people killed. Road severely damaged Mizoram September 1995 Kullu, HP 22 persons killed and several injured. About 1 km road destroyed 14,August 1998 Okhimath 69 people killed 18,August 1998 Malpa, 205 people killed. Road network to Mansarovar Kali river disrupted August 2003 Uttarkashi Heavy loss of infrastructurePossible risk reduction measures: § No construction of buildings in areas beyond a certain degree of slopeHazard mapping locates areas prone toslope failures. This will help to avoid building Retaining Walls can be built to stop landsettlements in such areas. These maps will from slipping (these walls are commonly seen along roads in hill stations). These arealso serve as a tool for mitigation planning. constructed to prevent smaller sized and secondary landslides that often occur alongLand use practices such as: the toe portion of the larger landslides.§ Areas covered by degraded natural vegetation in upper slopes are to be afforested with suitable species. Existing patches of natural vegetation (forest and natural grass land) in good condition, should be preserved§ Any developmental activity initiated in the area should be taken up only after a detailed study of the region has been Source: http://www.geoengineer.org/photos/ carried out. reearth1.jpg§ In construction of roads, irrigation Fig. 2.6.7 Retaining wall - Reinforced wall constructed canals etc. proper care is to be taken as a mitigation measure. to avoid blockage of natural drainage Surface Drainage Control Works The§ Total avoidance of settlement in the surface drainage control works are risk zone should be made mandatory. implemented to control the movement of§ Relocate settlements and infrastruc- landslides accompanied by infiltration of rain ture that fall in the possible path of the water and spring flows. landslide 44
  • 51. Natural Hazards & Disaster ManagementEngineered structures with strong Exercisefoundations can withstand or take the 1. What are landslides ? List out fiveground movement forces. Underground major causes of landslides in India.installations (pipes, cables, etc.) should bemade flexible to move in order to withstand 2. Identify major type of landslides.forces caused by the landslide 3. Suggest risk reduction measures forIncreasing vegetation cover is the landslide mitigation.cheapest and most effective way of arrestinglandslides. This helps to bind the top layerof the soil with layers below, while preventingexcessive run-off and soil erosion.Insurance will assist individuals whosehomes are likely to be damaged bylandslides or by any other natural hazards.References for further reading:§ http://www.csre.iitb.ac.in/rn/resume/landslide/ lsl.htm Landslide Information System - Center of Studies in Resource Engineering IIT Mumbai.§ http://landslides.usgs.gov USGS National Landslide Hazards Program (NLHP)§ http://www.fema.gov/hazards/landslides/ landslif.shtm Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA, USA is tasked with responding to, planning for, recovering from and mitigating against disasters.§ http://ilrg.gndci.pg.cnr.it/ The International Landslide Research Group (ILRG) is an informal group of individuals concerned about mass earth movement and interested in sharing information on landslide research. 45