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q4, m3 Document Transcript

  • 1. Modyul 3 – Mga Hamon sa Pamamahala ng Matatag na Republika Mga Paksa: 1. Mga Layunin at Adhikain ng mga Pangkat-Etniko sa Cordillera na Magkaroon ng Awtonomiya mula sa Pamahalaan 2. Ang Dahilan at Paraan ng Pagsulong ng Pagsasarili ng mga Muslim sa Mindanao Mga Kakayahan: 1. Natutukoy ang dahilan, layunin at pamamaraan ng mga katutubo sa Cordillera sa paghingi ng awtonomiya sa pamahalaan 2. Naipakikita ang paggalang sa kultura at lupain ng mga taga-Cordillera sa pagpapanatili ng kapayapaan 3. Napahahalagahan ang pagkakaroon ng pantay na karapatan at partisipasyon ng mga katutubo sa Cordillera sa pamamahala upang mapanatili ang katatagan ng republika 4. Nasusuri ang kahalagahan ng pagbibigay proteksiyon ng pamahalaan sa mga katutubo mula sa mga pagbabagong dulot ng modernisasyon upang maingatan ang kanilang lupain at kultura 5. Nasusuri ang kalakasan at kahinaan ng Kasunduan sa Tripoli noong 1976 upang maisulong ang pangmatagalang kapayapaan 6. Nauunawaan ang dahilan, pananaw at pamamaraan ng mga pinuno ng mga Muslim sa pagsulong ng sariling malayang pamahalaan 7. Napahahalagahan ang pagkakaroon ng pantay na representasyon sa kasaysayan at edukasyong akma sa kultura at pangangailangan ng mga pangkat-etniko 8. Naipakikita ang pagkilala at paggalang sa karapatan ng mga Muslim sa Pilipinas na magkaroon ng partisipasyon sa pamamahala 9. Nauunawaan ang pag-iwas sa marahas na pamamaraan at gawain bilang pagtugon sa mga isyung pampolitika, lipunan at kabuhayan 10. Natataya ang mga pangyayaring nagbigay-daan sa pagsulong ng mga Muslim ng sariling paraan upang maiwasan ang karahasan
  • 2. Para sa mga Mag-aaral Ang modyul na ito ay tumatalakay sa mga hamon sa pamamahala ng isang matatag na Republika. Sa araling ito ipinapaliwanag ang pakikibaka ng mga pangkat-etniko sa Cordillera at Muslim sa Mindanao sa pagsusulong ng sariling pamamahala o awtonomiya. Layunin ng modyul na ito na maunawaan ang kultura, paniniwala at kalagayang panlipunan, pangkabuhayan at pampolitikal ng mga pangkat-etniko sa nabanggit na lugar upang magkaroon ng tamang perspektibo ukol sa isyung ito na patuloy pa ding kinakaharap ng bansa. Sa pagtatapos ng mga gawain sa modyul na ito inaasahan ang pagiging sensitibo sa kalagayan at relihiyon ng mga pangkat-etniko sa bansa upang mas maisulong ang pangmatagalang kapayapaan at pagkakaisa na magpapatatag sa bansa. Mahalaga ding magsanay na maging mapanuri at mapagmuni upang lubos na maisulong ang pagwawaksi sa marahas na pamamaraan ng pagsusulong ng adhikain at makabuo ng suhesyon kung paano makikipamuhay nang mapayapa sa mga taong may iba’t ibang kultura. Sa ganito pamamaraan, mahuhubog ang tamang kaisipan, kasanayan at pagpapahalaga na dapat taglayin sa pagharap sa mga hamon ng bansa. Panimula Sa panunungkulan ni Diosdado Macapagal pinagtibay ang Batas Republika 3844 o higit na kilala sa tawag na Land Reform Code ng 1963. Itinadhana ng batas na ito ang paglilipat ng pagmamay-ari ng lupa sa mga magsasakang nagbubungkal at nangungupahan sa lupa mula sa mga haciendero. Subalit ito ay hindi naisakatuparan dahil sa kakulangan ng pondo. Hinarap din ng dating Pangulong Macapagal ang iba pang suliranin tulad ng krisis sa kakulangan ng dayuhang salapi at ang pagbaba ng halaga ng piso sa dolyar (peso devaluation). Bilang tugon sa naturang suliranin ang pamahalaan ay nangutang sa mga institusyong pananalapi gaya ng International Monetary Fund (IMF) at World Bank (WB). Ang dating utang na US$ 150 milyon noong 1961 ay tumaas sa US$ 600 milyon noong 1965. Mga Suliraning Hinarap ni Pangulong Ferdinand E. Marcos Ang mga suliranin ay nagpatuloy sa panunungkulan ni dating Pangulong Ferdinand Marcos. Isa sa mga suliraning kinaharap ng kanyang unang termino sa panunugkulan ay ang matinding oposisyon sa pagpapadala ng mga sundalo sa Digmaan sa Vietnam. Araw – araw ang mga inilunsad na demonstrasyon sa mga lansangan sa Kamaynilaan laban sa kanyang pagpapadala ng tulong militar sa Vietnam. Hinarap din niya ang suliranin sa kahirapan na nagdudulot ng patuloy na paglaki ng agwat ng mahirap at mayaman. Ilan sa mga dahilan ng patuloy na kahirapan ay ang pagtaas ng mga pangunahing bilihin, pagtaas ng presyo ng langis sa pandaigdigang pamilihan at pagbagsak ng halaga ng piso. Sa kabila ng matinding kahirapan ng mga Pilipino patuloy pa din ang
  • 3. paglaganap ng korupsyon at anomalya sa pamahalaan. Gayundin, dahil sa kakulangan sa reporma sa lupa ay lalong nagalit ang mga magsasakang walang lupa. Maliban sa suliraning pangkabuhayan at lupaing pang-agraryo, hinarap din ng pamunuan ni dating Pangulong Ferdinand Marcos ang paglakas ng Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) ni Jose Ma. Sison noong 1968 at New People’s Army (NPA) ni Bernabe Buscayno o Kumander Dante noong 1969, at ang pagsusulong ng mga katutubo sa Cordillera at Muslim sa Mindanao na magtaguyod ng isang sariling pamahalaan na aangkop sa kanilang kultura at relihiyon. Pagsulong ng mga Taga-Cordillera ng Awtonomiya Sa mga unang taon ng NPA ay sinimulan nilang palaganapin ang kanilang hukbo sa North-Eastern Luzon (NEL) na kinabibilangan ng Cagayan, Nueva Vizcaya, Quirino, Kalinga- Apayao at Ifugao. Marami ang nahikayat na sumapi sa NPA sa NEL dahil sa isinulong nitong repormang pang-agraryo. Bahagi ng programang ito ay ang pamamahagi ng mga lupain, pagpapababa ng renta sa lupa at pagtataguyod ng kooperatiba para sa mga magsasaka. Ang paggamit ng NPA ng sandata ay isa sa mga dahilan kung bakit nakipagtulungan ang mga nagmamay-ari ng lupa. Noong 1969, ay tuluyan ng naitatag ang kilusan ng NPA sa mga probinsya ng Cordillera tulad ng Ifugao, Mountain Province at Benguet. Patuloy pa itong lumaganap sa bahagi ng Kalinga noong 1974 dahil sa pagsalungat ng mga katutubo dito sa proyekto ng World Bank sa Ilog Chico-Pasil. Habang noong 1979 ay may umanib na katutubo sa NPA sa Abra dahil sa pagtutol ng mga ito sa proyekto na sisira sa kanilang mga kagubatan. Maraming katutubo sa Cordillera ang umanib sa kilusan dahil sa mga sumusunod: (1) upang ipagtanggol ang kanilang karapatan at ang lupain na kinamkam ng pamahalaan; (2) matakasan ang kanilang ginawang krimen at maghimagsik laban sa mga taong nakagawa ng krimen sa kanila at sa kanilang pamilya, at (3) mabigyan sila ng magandang oportunidad sa buhay. Noong 1974 ay tuluyang humiwalay ang pangkat nina Ignacio Capegsan, Jingjing Carino, Mario Pugong sa NPA dahil sa pagtanggi ng kilusan na suportahan ang naisin ng mga katutubo na humingi ng awtonomiya sa pamahalaan habang ipinaglalaban ang ideolohiya ng kilusan. Dahil sa sigalot na ito sa loob ng NPA sa Cordillera ay nabuo ang Igorot Liberation Army (ILA) at Federation of Tribes for Liberation (FTL). Pagsulong ng mga Muslim sa Mindanao ng Awtonomiya Tulad ng mga pangkat-etniko sa Cordillera, isinusulong din ng mga Muslim sa Mindanao ang pagkakaroon ng sariling pamahalaan. Noong dekada ’50 ay isinulong ng pamahalaan ang programang integrasyon upang maramdaman ng iba’t-ibang pangkat ng mga Muslim sa Pilipinas na sila ay bahagi ng bansa at kapantay ng mga Kristyanong Pilipino. Isa sa mga
  • 4. programang inilunsad ng pamahalaan upang makamit ang hangaring ito ay ang pagbibigay ng iskolarship sa mga Muslim sa mga unibersidad sa Maynila at Gitnang Silangan. Ang programang ito ay naghahangad na hubugin ang kabataang Muslim sa larangan ng pamamahala at mapagyabong pa ang kulturang Islam. Subalit noong 1965, nasaksihan ng mga kabataang Muslim ang mariing pagtuligsa ng Kristyanong Pilipino sa mga Muslim sa Maynila lalong-lalo na sa isyu sa Sabah. Sa panahong ding ito ang mga mag-aaral na Muslim sa Maynila ay naging aktibo sa mga kilusan ng mga mag-aaral sa mga unibersidad sa Manila na nagsusulong ng ideolohiyang komunismo nina Vladimir Lenin, Karl Marx, at Mao Zedong. Noong 1968, isiniwalat ni Senator Benigno Aquino ang Jabidah Massacre na naganap sa Corregidor kung saan may 28 Muslim ang tinatayang pinatay ng Philippine Army dahil sa pagsalungat nito na tulungan ang pamahalaan na sakupin ang Sabah. Dahil sa pangyayaring ito, naglunsad ng malawakang demonstrasyon ang mga mag-aaral na Muslim sa Maynila at bumuo ng mga organisasyon na magsusulong ng paghiwalay ng mga probinsiyang tinitirahan ng mga Muslim sa Mindanao tulad ng Cotabato, Davao, Zamboanga, Basilan, Lanao, Sulu at Palawan. Ilan sa mga pangkat ng Muslim na nagsusulong ng kanilang pagsasarili ay ang Muslim Independent Movement (MIM), Ansar El-Islam, Union of Islamic Forces and Organizations (UIFO), Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), Bangsa Moro Liberation Organization (BMLO), Bangsa Muslimin Islamic Liberation Organization (BMILO), Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) at Moro Revolutionary Organization (MORO). Ang paglakas ng impluwensiya ng CPP/NPA at pagsulong ng pagsasarili ng mga pangkat- etniko sa Cordillera at mga pangkat ng mga Muslim sa Mindanao ang ginawang katwiran ni dating Pangulong Ferdinand Marcos sa pagdedeklara ng Batas Militar noong 1972. Ito ay ilan lamang sa mga isyung kinaharap ng pamahalaan na humamon sa pagtatag nito ng isang malayang republika. Sanggunian: Che Man W.K., “The Moros of Southern Philippines and the Malays of Southern Thailand” (Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1990), pp. 74-81. De Dios, Aurora et al., “Dictatorship and Revolution Roots of People’s Power” (Quezon City, Conspectus Foundation Incorporated, 1988), pp. 63-69. Felmin, Haron B., “Cultural Jewels Moro Tradition and Political Leaders: A Compilation” (Davao City: TESORO’s Priniting Press, 2008), pp. 59-60, 129-132, 136-138. Glang, Alunan C., “Muslim Secession or Integration?” (Quezon City: R.P. Garcia Publishing Company, 1969), pp. 74-93
  • 5. Kintanar, Galileo C. et al., “Lost in Time from Birth to Obsolescence: The Communist Party of the Philippines, Book 2:1972-1999” (Quezon City, Truth and Justice Foundation Inc., 2000), pp. 146- 150. Mactal, Ronaldo B., “Historia, Batayang-Aklat sa Araling Panlipunan”, (Quezon City, Phoenix Publishing House, Inc., 2011), pp. 355-357. McKenna, Thomas M., “Muslim Rulers and Rebels”, (Pasig City, ANVIL Publishing Inc., 1998), pp. 138- 143. Pobre, Cesar P., “In Assertion of Sovereignty Volume I”, (Quezon City, Armed Forces of the Philippines Office, 2008), pp. 4-6. Mga Hamon sa Pamamahala ng Matatag na Republika Pagkilala sa mga Pangkat-Etniko ng Pilipinas. Suriin ang ipinapakita sa mga larawan sa pamamagitan ng pagsagot sa mga gabay na tanong. Pinagkunan: Ifugao religious dance, November 16, 2012, http://ph.images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0S0uPDsoqlQBR4AdtS1Rwx.;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsD aW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fph.images.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Digorot%2Bdance%26ei%3Dutf- 8%26fr%3Dsfp%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D68&w=500&h=379&imgurl=farm3.static.flickr.com%2F2388%2F1613248233_f70b9283e8.j pg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Faland.backpackerchat.com%2FPic%2Fblog_sg%2F120603%2F&size=134.3+KB&name=%3Cb%3Eigorot+danc
  • 6. e%3C%2Fb%3E&p=igorot+dance&oid=ed21c6c8bf0ff1fa9fd805bc123cd50a&fr2=&fr=sfp&tt=%253Cb%253Eigorot%2Bdance%253C%2 52Fb%253E&b=61&ni=84&no=68&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=11jl99rt2&sigb=130io1lj6&sigi=11mo4673n&.crumb=gbWYOaVuDS6 Filipino Muslim, November 8, 2012, http://ph.images.search.yahoo.com/images/view;_ylt=A0S0uD4zpKlQ6wwAjGC1Rwx.;_ylu=X3oDMTBlMTQ4cGxyBHNlYwNzcgRzbGs DaW1n?back=http%3A%2F%2Fph.images.search.yahoo.com%2Fsearch%2Fimages%3Fp%3Dmuslim%2Bpraying%2Bin%2Bthe%2Bmosq ue%2Bin%2Bthe%2BPhilippines%26n%3D30%26ei%3Dutf- 8%26fr%3Dsfp%26tab%3Dorganic%26ri%3D60&w=450&h=300&imgurl=www.palestine-amorous.com%2Fwp- content%2Fuploads%2Fflipiono.jpg&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.palestine- amorous.com%2Fpictures%2F%25d8%25b5%25d9%2588%25d8%25b1- %25d8%25b1%25d9%2585%25d8%25b6%25d8%25a7%25d9%2586%25d9%258a%25d8%25a9- %25d8%25ad%25d9%2588%25d9%2584-%25d8%25a7%25d9%2584%25d8%25b9%25d8%25a7%25d9%2584%25d9%2585- 1432%25d9%2587%25d9%2580- 2011%25d9%2585%2F&size=44.5+KB&name=Filipino+Muslims+pray+inside+a+%3Cb%3Emosque+%3C%2Fb%3Eduring+%3Cb%3Eth e+%3C%2Fb%3Estart+of+Ramadan+%3Cb%3Ein+%3C%2Fb%3E...&p=muslim+praying+in+the+mosque+in+the+Philippines&oid=78d1c 32a3b44f76723ceaee62eea328a&fr2=&fr=sfp&tt=Filipino%2BMuslims%2Bpray%2Binside%2Ba%2B%253Cb%253Emosque%2B%253C %252Fb%253Eduring%2B%253Cb%253Ethe%2B%253C%252Fb%253Estart%2Bof%2BRamadan%2B%253Cb%253Ein%2B%253C%25 2Fb%253E...&b=31&ni=84&no=60&ts=&tab=organic&sigr=15shjdvv5&sigb=148308vqp&sigi=11pc407h5&.crumb=gbWYOaVuDS6 Ifugao Mummy, November 8, 2012, http://www.google.com/imgres?q=PARAAN+NG+PAGLILIBING+NG+MGA+IFUGAO&um=1&hl=ko&sa=N&biw=1366&bih=643&tbm=isc h&tbnid=tO9qvZI5QgMPaM:&imgrefurl=http://fil.wikipilipinas.org/index.php%3Ftitle%3DBenguet_Mummies&docid=x0027rvVokDpNM&im gurl=http://fil.wikipilipinas.org/images/thumb/2/2f/Fire_mummy.jpg/250px- Fire_mummy.jpg&w=250&h=188&ei=zQeiUOXrKbGdiAfTvIEw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=148&vpy=339&dur=784&hovh=150&hovw=200&t x=134&ty=76&sig=116124093715113777910&page=3&tbnh=131&tbnw=175&start=51&ndsp=25&ved=1t:429,r:58,s:20,i:306 Muslim Burial Ceremony, November 8, 2012, http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_UmCuOJY650o/TMqauSZ2cQI/AAAAAAAALT8/H5FCrRwF8uY/s400/Burial+1.jpg Pamprosesong Tanong: 1. Ano-anong pangkat-etniko ang nasa larawan? 2. Ano-ano ang pagkakaiba ng kanilang kultura sa aspeto ng pananampalataya at paniniwala? Ipaliwanag ang sagot. 3. Ano-ano ang maaaring idulot ng pagkakaroon ng ibat-ibang pananampalataya at paniniwala sa pamamahala ng isang bansa?
  • 7. Mga Layunin at Adhikain ng mga Pangkat-Etniko sa Cordillera na Magkaroon ng Awtonomiya mula sa Pamahalaan Ang siping mababasa ay mga bahagi ng panayam kay Abrino Aydinan, dating chairman ng Cordillera Regional Consultative Commission noong 1992. Isa rin siya sa mga taga-Cordillera na sumapi sa CPP/NPA upang maisulong ang awtonomiya sa kanilang probinsiya. Ang kanyang salaysay ay nagsasaad ng dahilan ng unti-unting paglaganap ng CPP/NPA sa Cordillera at paghiwalay ng mga lider ng Cordillera sa pangkat upang mapagtuunan ang pagsusulong ng sariling pamamahala. Sanggunian 1: Negotiating for Peace in Cordilleras Abrino Aydinan (1992) “The reason for the Cordillerans’ feeling of affinity with the Marxist ferment was the incorporation of their struggle against “national oppression” and for “national self-determination” into the “Program for the People’s Democratic Revolution” of the New People’s Army. The NPA eventually reached the Cordilleras at the close of 1970; I set it up in Ifugao, Mountain Province, and Benguet. For some four years the movement was confined to the area of its birth, until 1974 when the Kalinga opposition to a World Bank-supported project to the dam the rice terraces-flanked Chico-Pasil river system brought the flame of revolution leaping into a second front. After the lapse of three more years, in 1979, another front opened up in Abra when the Tinguians also resisted an agro-industrial venture that would have decimated their pine forest stands. In Abra the NPA recruited Wanas, Mailed Molina, Moises Linggayo, Fr. Bruno Ortega, and Fr. Conrado Balweg who were later to play dramatic roles in the Cordillera revolution’s decisive turn towards peace.” “I and some imprisoned leaders of the NPA and the Maoist Communist Party of the Philippines from the Cordilleras challenged the party policy by proposing the creation of an MNLF-type Cordillera organization which would form a component of the then still inchoate National Democratic Front; as a consequence, I earned party ex-communication. Meanwhile, by 1973 or 1974, Ignacio Capegsan, Jingjing Carino, Mario Pugong and the other then current leaders of the NPA in Cordillera had formed an Igorot Liberation Army and a political arm for which the alarmed CPP central leadership quickly imposed an interdiction on the ground that was deemed divisive of the party and the nation. But, as it would turn out much later, the seed of the Cordillera autonomy from both the existing Philippine government and its aspiring successors from the revolutionary movement was sown.” “Among the Cordillera cadres in the NPA and CPP the idea of Cordillera autonomy that could be won from the present state caught on. The cadres from outside the culture inevitably stood by the political line of the party: there could be no “genuine” autonomy until the envisaged national democratic state is set up in the country as a whole. A drawn-out ideological battle within the CPP and NPA in the Cordilleras waxed and waned, practically in cycles, but it did not die away, until the Cordillera People’s Liberation Army (CPLA) was born.”
  • 8. Pinagkunan: Kintanar, Galileo C. et al., “Lost in Time from Birth to Obsolescence: The Communist Party of the Philippines, Book 2:1972-1999” (Quezon City, Truth and Justice Foundation Inc., 2000), pp. 148 -150 Gawain 1. Akyatin at Alamin Adhikain ng Kapatid Natin!. Basahin at suriin ang sipi gamit ang mountain web. Matapos basahin ang sipi ay sagutin ang mga tanong na nasa bawat baitang ng bundok. Iginuhit ni Arturo B. Teves ng Las Pinas National High School, 2012 Glosari Ferment – pangpahilab Consequence – kinahinatnan Self-determination – sarilng pagpapasiya Interdiction – pagbabawal Opposition – pagtutol Cadres – pangkat o pulutong Flame of Revolution – pagsiklab ng himagsikan Genuine – wagas Decimated – pagkasira Waxed and waned – titigil at magpapatuloy Inchoate – sinimulan Autonomy – pagsasarili Ano ang layunin ng mga katutubo ng Cordillera sa pagsanib sa NPA? 1 . 4 . 3 . 2 .
  • 9. Inilalahad sa sipi ang ikawalong punto ng 1973 Draft ng National Democratic Front Program. Sa bahaging ito isinasaad ang pananaw ng NDF ukol sa mga karapatan ng mga pangkat-etniko sa Cordillera sa pagsulong ng pagsasarili. Sanggunian 2 : Pinagkunan: Lost in Time from Birth to Obsolescence, The Communist Part of the Philippines Book 2: 1972-1999 of Galileo C. Kintanar and Pacifico V. Militante. (2000) Gawain 2. Pagpapayabong ng Karapatan. Gamit ang tree web ibigay ang mga pananaw ng NDF ukol sa karapatan ng mga pangkat-etniko sa Cordillera sa pagsulong ng pagsasarili. Glosari Oppression – pahirap Struggle – pakikibaka Secede – humiwalay Cultural autonomy – kalayaang kultural Iginuhit ni Neil M. Conche ng Las Pinas National High School, 2012 Point 8 of 1973 Draft of the NDF Program The national minorities have the right to liberate themselves from oppression and determine their own destiny. The right to self-determination includes the right to secede from a state of national oppression or choose autonomy within a state that guarantees the equality of nationalities. It is our stand that all national minorities, big or small, should enjoy autonomy and be accorded special guarantees for their accelerated progress. Their struggle is not merely for “cultural autonomy” but for all-around progress with due respect to their special characteristics.
  • 10. Upang lalo pang yumabong ang iyong kaalaman, bumuo ng pangkat at sagutin ang mga katanungan sa talahanayan. TANONG SAGOT 1. Sa iyong palagay, bakit ipinaglaban ng mga pangkat- etniko sa Cordillera ang kanilang karapatan sa pamamahala? 2. Sa kasalukuyan, nakamit ba ng mga pangkat-etniko sa Cordillera ang awtonomiya na kanilang hinahangad? Ipaliwanag ang iyong kasagutan. 3. Kung ikaw ang nasa katayuan ng mga katutubo noon, isusulong mo rin ba ang pagkakaroon ng awtonomiya? Sa artikulong ito, ipinapakita ang mga pangyayaring nagpasidhi ng adhikain ng mga pangkat-etniko sa Cordillera na magkaroon ng awtonomiya sa pamamahala. Sanggunian 3: The Cordillera: Historical Accounts on Regional Identity, Development and Autonomy in Chronology (1565-2007) March Faiza (2012) 1964 – 1966. The first Mt. Province Economic Council Conference opens to discuss the future development of the Mountain Province and its sub-provinces. The topics that were discussed were about the establishment of cottage industries such as timber industry, establishment of the coffee industry and fruit – canning factory in Lubuagan, Kalinga; forest policy, Mainit health resort, hydro electric power, Benguet mining , the unexplored Apayao territory, development of the Tabuk plain in Kalinga, and the opening of roads from Kalinga to the Cagayan Valley and the Ilocos to “ promote trade and commerce and accelerate economic development. “ As a result of the economic conference, Congressman Luis Hora authored RA 4071 that established the Mountain Province Development Authority (MPDA), which sought for a total funding of P300 million in 10 years. It was signed into law in 1966. 1966. June 18. Republic Act No. 4695 was enacted formally dividing the old mountain Province into four provinces and creating Benguet, Ifugao, Mountain Province and Kalinga-Apayao as separate provinces. This political division was proven to be incompatible with the creation of the MPDA, which, within four years since its conception, was facing strong local pressure for its disbandment. 1968. The Mountain Province Mayors League asked that MPDA be scrapped because nothing has been achieved by the Authority, and that its funds be proportionately allocated to the four provinces in the mountain region.
  • 11. Pinagkunan: Faiza, March, The Cordillera: Historical Accounts on Regional Identity, Development and Autonomy in Chronology (1565- 2007), October 29, 2012, http://cordilleravoice.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=181&Itemid=128 1970 – 1972. The Communist party of the Philippines- New People’s Army entered the Cordillera through the Province of Ifugao before moving to other provinces. Mario Pugong aka Ka Elias of Hungduan, Ifugao and William Falag-ey aka Ka Benjie or Ka Juling of Bontoc, Mountain Province proposed to the CPP / NPA Central Command the formation of the Igorot Liberation Army ( ILA ) and the Federation of Tribes for Liberation ( FITL ), believing that the Cordillerans has a unique culture and terrain different from the lowlands and therefore should be treated somewhat differently. Their proposal was deniedby the CCP/ NPA Central Command. 1972. Presidential Order No. 1. (Regionalization Law) divided the whole country into 13 regions, supposedly for better administration, planning and development. Abra, Benguet, Mountain Province and Baguio became part of region I ( Ilocos ) while Ifugao and Kalinga- Apayao were included in Region II ( Cagayan ). Efforts calling for the creation of a new separate Cordillera region failed. Glosari Sub-provinces – munisipalidad Terrain –topograpiya ng lupa Enacted – nagpatibay, nag-utos Lowland – kapatagan Political division – dibisyong pampulitikal Cottage industries – industriyang pantahanan Incompatible – di angkop Trade and commerce – Komersyo at Kalakalan Disbandment – pagtiwalag Economic development – pagsulong ng ekonomiya Scrapped – pagputol
  • 12. Gawain 3. Pagtahak sa Nakaraan . Gamit ang timeline, tukuyin ang mga pangyayaring naganap sa bawat taon at bunga nito sa pagsusulong ng awtonomiya sa Cordillera. Isulat ang mga sagot sa kaukulang kahon.
  • 13. Ang Dahilan at Paraan ng Pagsulong ng Pagsasarili ng mga Muslim sa Mindanao Ang sipi ay halaw sa aklat na Swish of the Kris noong 1936 ni Vic Hurley. Ito ay naglalahad ng mga pahayag ng mga datu at demonstrador sa Mindanao ukol sa integrasyon ng mga Muslim sa Republika ng Pilipinas. Ang integrasyon ay tumutukoy sa hakbang ng pamahalaan na mahikayat ang mga Muslim na tuluyang maging bahagi ng Pilipinas. Sanggunian 4: Pinagkunan: Glang, Alunan C., “Muslim Secession or Integration?” (Quezon City: R.P. Garcia Publishing Company, 1969), pp. 75 Glosari Jungle warfare – pakikipaglaban Moros – Muslim Segregated – paghihiwalay “I am old man now. I do not want any more trouble. But should it come to that, that we are given over to Filipinos, I still would fight.” Datu Sacaluran, 1910 “I will never be able to hold my men in check under the rule of the Filipinos. They will take to the hills and will never submit. The old days of jungle warfare I saw thirty years ago will return to Mindanao and Sulu.” Unnamed Muslim datu, 1910 “We Moros are not with the Christian Filipinos in their asking for independence. We wish our Moro country to be segregated from Luzon and the Visayan Islands.” Statement indicated in the placards of Muslim demonstrators in Zamboanga City during the celebration of Rizal Day in 1923
  • 14. Gawain 4: Damit ng Pag-unawa. Isulat ang dahilan at pamamaraan ng pagsulong ng awtonomiya ng mga Muslim sa Mindanao. Pamprosesong Tanong 1. Ano ang ipinapakitang reaksiyon o emosyon ng mga Muslim ukol sa integrasyon ng kanilang pangkat sa Republika ng Pilipinas? 2. Bakit ganito ang pananaw at reaksiyon ng mga datu at Muslim ukol sa integrasyon nila sa pamahalaan ng Republika ng Pilipinas?
  • 15. Inilahad sa pag-aaral ni W.K. Che Man ang mga pangyayaring mula noong 1968 hanggang 1972 na nagpaalab sa damdamin ng mga Muslim na maghangad ng pagsasarili at bumuo ng mga samahan na magsusulong ng kanilang adhikain. Sanggunian 5: Muslim Separatism: The Moros and the Malays W.K. Che Man (1990) Among the immediate significant events that led to the formation of organized fronts and to the war of liberation were the Jabidah Massacre (Corregidor Incident) in 1968, the Manili Massacre in 1971, the election of 1971, and the declaration of Martial Law in 1972. Jabidah Massacre (1968) Between 28 and 64 Moros recruits out of a large number undergoing guerilla warfare training in Corregidor Island were massacred in late March 1968 by Philippine Army men. The training was allegedly in secret preparation for Philippine military operations and Sabah-code named “Operation Merdeka”. “Operation Merdeka”, as explained by some Moros, was an attempt by Manila to split Islamic ranks and provoke a war between Sulu and Sabah. According to the lone survivor, Jibin Arola, the “trainees were shot because they refused to follow the order to attack Sabah”(quoted in Jubair, 1984:73). Aware of the possible impact of the leakage of this secret plan, the military authorities executed the entire company so that none survived to tell the story (Jubair, 1984; Lucman, 1982) Manili Massacre (1971) It occurred in June 1971 when about 65 Muslims-men, women, and children- were murdered by Ilagas¹ at a mosque in Barrio Manili, North Cotabato. To the Muslim, the Manili incident carried special weight because it took place in a mosque compound. It was seen as an act of religious humiliation. As Ali Treki of Libya stated, “We believe the conflict is now religious war” (Philippine Herald, 8 July 1972). ______________________________________ ¹Ilagas refers to the Christian group linked with Governor Arsenio Quibranza of Lanao del Norte and Ilonggo settlers.
  • 16. Pinagkunan: Che Man W.K., “The Moros of Southern Philippines and the Malays of Southern Thailand” (Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1990), pp. 74-76 Election of 1971 The hostilities between the Muslims and Christians in the region escalated greatly as the November 1971 election drew near. The number of evacuees was over, political power in parts of Moroland has shifted from Muslims to Christians. This shift stimulated the two sides to increase their hostilities and thus attracted the attention of overseas Muslim states. In 1972, the atmosphere in Mindanao was tense as sporadic clashes between Ilagas and the Philippine Armed Forces, on the other hand, and Barracudas and Blackshirts², occurred here and there. _____________________________________ ²Barracudas and Blackshirts refer to the Muslim group allegedly linked with Congressman Ali Dimaporo in Lanao del Norte and with the MIM in Cotabato respectively. Declaration of Martial Law in 1972 Marcos’ declaration of martial law broadened the base support and determined the timing of the resort to warfare by the core-group of Muslim radicals. Three characteristics of martial law were critical. First, the centralization of the regime left power almost exclusively in ‘Christian’ hand; Marcos, his family and associates; ‘technocrats’ in Manila; and the military. Second, by restricting the range of legitimate political activity the regime left as option only the acceptance of the regime and its promises, or anti-regime revolutionary activities. Third, the regime’s immediate moves to collect guns from civilians meant that compliance removed the potential for an eventual resort to force. Thus both Muslims who had been frustrated under the old system but had been able to channel their frustration into nonviolent political activities, and opportunists ready to seize any chance to achieve immediate goals-for power, wealth, or pride-became willing to join the radicals. Glosari Massacre – maramihang pagpatay ng mga tao Stimulated – naudyok Leakage – pagbunyag Sporadic clashes – hiwa-hiwalay na sagupaan Hostilities – kaguluhan Channel – ilipat Escalated – lumala
  • 17. Gawain 5: Ating Suriin Kamalayang Pangkapayapaan. Sumali sa isang pangkat at punan ang matrix ng pangyayaring itatalaga ng guro. Matapos ito ay sagutin ang mga katanungan sa cross-examination activity sheet.
  • 18. Pamprosesong Tanong 1. Ano ang aral na matututuhan mula sa mga pangyayaring inilahad? 2. Paano makapagsusulong ng isang mapayapang lipunan sa kabila ng pagkakaroon ng magkakaibang kultura at paniniwala? Isinasaad sa sipi ang hindi pagkakapantay-pantay ng mga Kristiyanong Pilipino at Muslim sa pagkakamit ng edukasyon, paglalahad ng kontribusyon sa pagbubuo ng kasaysayan ng Pilipinas at katayuan pampolitikal at pangkabuhayan. Sanggunian 6: I K S A I L P A I W A N G Pahayag ni Senator Domacao Alonto sa First National Muslim Convention sa Cotabato, Cotabato noong Hunyo 8-12, 1955 “The Muslim Filipinos are behind their Christian brothers in modern education. Why, because our present educational system is only effective with the Christians. It has failed in its mission to educate all the Filipinos in this country. Our textbooks need revision; they are ineffective in the knowledge and wisdom they impart to the Muslim Filipinos. Our history books, for instance, tell only of the heroism and patriotism of northern Filipinos. No mention is made whatsoever of the patriotic exploits and heroic deeds of the Filipinos of the south. Why, is patriotism a monopoly of Christian Filipinos? Have not the Moros fought-and successfully the Spaniards…the Americans and the Japanese? Why, are the Muslim Filipinos’ blood spilt for nothing, and their lives meaningless? Why are the Muslim Filipinos known only in history books as bandits, pirates, and cutthroats, and these books are silent on everything good and credible to the Muslims?” U N S A I N P G I Pahayag ni Senator Domacao Alonto sa Second National Conference sa Marawi City noong October 11-16, 1956 “We said we must unite not only among ourselves but with our Christian brothers. But how? It is a truism to state that unity can be had only among equals. We are not, as to state, standing in equality with our Christian brothers, politically and economically. To really and firmly integrate the Muslim into the body politic, the economic and political level of the Muslims must perforce be elevated to the status at par with the rest of the Filipinos.”
  • 19. Pinagkunan: Glang, Alunan C., “Muslim Secession or Integration?” (Quezon City: R.P. Garcia Publishing Company, 1969), pp. 76,80 and 87 Gawain 6: Gulong ng Pag-unawa sa Ugat ng Hidwaan. Isaad sa loob ng wheel ang mga pananaw nina Senator Domacao Alonto at Dr. Adib Majul ang hinihingi ng bawat kategorya ayon sa pahina ng sipi. I K S A I T P L I O N G Pahayag ni Dr. Cesar Adib Majul sa First National Symposium sa UP Diliman, Quezon City noong December 21, 1968 “But of great importance to note is that present Muslim leaders, learned men and youth, are aware of or assume that they are an historical people whose history is older that the other people with whom they are now cast as members of a single state. This is axiomatic with them. What had given them, among other things, a sense of identity has been and still remain Islam. Thus to them Islam is an integral part of their history.” Glosari Truism – katotohanang maliwanag Bandits – rebelde Perforce – sapilitan Cut throats – mamamatay tao Heroism – kabayanihan Axiomatic – kawikaan Patriotism – makabayan Body Politic – ganap na samahang pulitikal
  • 20. Pamprosesong Tanong 1. Bakit mahalaga ang pagkakaroon ng pantay na tungkulin ng mga Kristyano at Muslim sa pagbubuo ng kasaysayan? 2. Ano ang kahalagahan ng pagkakamit ng edukasyon para isang tao, pamayanan at bansa? Ilang bahagi ng liham ni Datu Udtog Matalam ng Muslim Independence Movement kay Pangulong Ferdinand E. Marcos noong July 26, 1969. Sa liham na ito nakasaad ang mga kadahilanan sa paghahangad ng sariling pamahalaan ng mga Muslim sa Mindanao at Palawan. Sanggunian 7: Muslim Independence Movement (MIM) DOCUMENT NO. 2-A NOTE The President Malacañang Manila EXCELLENCY: The MUSLIM inhabitants of Mindanao, Sulu, and Palawan extend their compliment to his Excellency, the President of the Republic of the Philippines. The MUSLIM INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT OF THE PHILIPPINES, otherwise known and referred to also as MIM is a legitimate organization of the MUSLIM now living in the Island of Mindanao, Sulu and Palawan, as their concerted voice, organized solely as an instrument for the realization of their cherished dreams and aspirations. The MIM subscribes to the principle that all men, endowed with certain inalienable rights, such as life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, are entitled to pursue and decide their own destinies under the regime of universal justice, equity, and reason. The MIM believes that man in both a social and political being endowed by HIS Creator with conscience, soul, and body; and as such, he shall be left to himself to develop his society in the most natural manner in accordance with his customs, traditions, and idiosyncrasies, free from foreign and undue interference.
  • 21. The MIM being an aggrupation of MUSLIMS in reawakening to the fact that Islam has gained, through the centuries, adherents in the Far East, and that there are considerable MUSLIMS in the Islands of Mindanao, Sulu, and Palawan who constitutes a NATION by themselves, having a different culture of their own and a distinct historical background from the rest of the more affluent cultural majority, the Christian Nation, and who never could be integrated into the latter. The MIM expresses with all candor its stand to firmly pursue its aim and purposes as embodied in the MANIFESTO of May 1, 1968 and the Memorandum thereto appended, copies of which hereto attached. The MIM views it with great concern the uncalled for propaganda campaigning undertaken against it during the Philippine Independence Day Celebration on June 12, 1968, and considers it as an affront and a very serious insult to the MUSLIM’S pride and dignity – MARATABAT- by bribing and segregating them form other VIP visitors at Malacañang, and making them parade at the Luneta like museum pieces. The MIM deplores the fact that what prompted his Excellency’s government to invite the MUSLIM leaders to join the above celebration was purely for foreign consumption to impress upon the Malaysians and the whole world that the MUSLIMS have in fact no desire to secede from the Republic of the Philippines; otherwise, if it is true as in fact a reality, a question would arise; why should the Malaysians surrender the State of Sabah which is predominantly populated by MUSLIMS to a Christian nation when the latter does not take good care of the MUSLIMS found within its borders? The MIM considers its privilege to announce to the whole world that it is not against the settlement of the Sabah dispute in so far as such settlement redounds to the benefits of the MUSLIMS of Mindanao, Sulu, Palawan, and the State of Sabah, who are the direct and rightful beneficiaries thereof. The MIM views it with alarming concern the hostile attitude your Excellency’s government has undertaken towards the legitimate aspirations of the MUSLIMS in the organization and establishment of their own independent government as the only dignified and honorable expectation from a people who, after centuries of national struggle to preserve their national identity, are treated merely as second class citizens by the more affluent Christian Majority. The MIM feels deeply aggrieved by the action taken by the PC high Command in undertaking civilian registration of the MUSLIM under the guise of listing only aliens, particularly the Chinese, in Mindanao, Sulu, and Palawan, but later found it as directed towards the MUSLIM community. The MIM views it with apprehension the hostile and unfriendly act of the government in sending detachment of Army troops in full combat gear to Cotabato and other parts of Mindanao and Sulu as an attempt to suppress the legitimate aspirations of the MUSLIMS; the same being aggravated by the planting of intelligence agents at every MUSLIM community, and the acceleration of the influx of settlers from Visayas and Luzon.
  • 22. Pinagkunan: Glang, Alunan C., “Muslim Secession or Integration?” (Quezon City: R.P. Garcia Publishing Company, 1969), pp. 113-115 The MIM, after deeply considering the foregoing situations, and being imbued with zeal and patriotism in the defense of its cause, aspirations, and legitimate demands, WISHES to make known to your EXCELLENCY and the Government the earnest desire of the MUSLIMS to organize and establish their own independent government, free from but equal with all other states under the laws of civilized nations. The MIM appreciates it with open mind the challenge and statesmanship your Excellency’s government may undertake towards this noble cause; and the MUSLIM community would be in watchful waiting. Pagalungan, Cotabato, Philippines, July 26, 1968. DATU UDTOG MATALAM Chairman Glosari Inhabitant – naninirahan Affront – paghamak Concerted voice – nagkakaisang damdamin Deplores – di pagsang-ayon Endowed – pinagkalooban Predominantly – nangingibabaw Inalianable rights –karapatang di maikakaila Affluent – mayaman idiosyncrasies – kakaiba Aggrieved – sumama ang loob Aggrupation – organisasyon o samahan Apprehension – pangamba Candor – katapatan ng loob Influx – pagpasok Embodied – kaakibat Excellency – kamahalan Manifesto – pahayag
  • 23. Gawain 7. Layag sa Pagsasarili. Mula sa liham ni Datu Udtog Matalam, isulat sa loob ng layag ang karapatan na isinusulong ng mga MIM at inilahad nilang katangian ng mga Muslim na iba sa Kristyanong Pilipino. Isulat naman sa mga arrows ang mga naging karanasan ng mga Muslim na nagpasidhi sa kanilang pagnanais na isulong ang sariling pamahalaan.
  • 24. Pamprosesong Tanong 1. Ano ang iyong naramdaman habang binabasa ang liham ni Datu Udtog Matalam? 2. Kung ikaw ay isang Muslim na nakaranas o nakasaksi ng mga pangyayaring isinaad sa liham, hihimukin mo din ba ang iyong mga kababayang Muslim na magsulong ng sariling pamahalaang hiwalay sa Republika ng Pilipinas? 3. Makatwiran ba ang kadahilanang inilahad ni Datu Udtog Matalam ukol sa hiling na pagsasarili ng Mindanao, Sulu at Palawan sa dating Pangulong Ferdinand Marcos? Ipaliwanag ang kasagutan. 4. Ano ang suhesyon na maaari mong ibigay upang maramdaman ng ating mga kapatid na Muslim na sila ay bahagi ng ating bansa at sila ay ating pinapahalagahan? Produkto / Pagganap Sumali sa isang pangkat at basahin ang kasunduang pumapaloob sa 1976 Tripoli Agreement sa pagitan ng pamahalaan at Moro Islamic National Liberation Front na itatalaga ng guro sa pangkat. Matapos basahin, talakayin at suriin ang bawat kasunduan sa pamamagitan ng pagtatala at pagpapaliwanag ng kalakasan at kahinaan ng bawat kasunduan. Mahalagang bigyang-diin sa kalakasan ng kasunduan ang kabutihang panlipunan, pampulitikal, pangkultural at pangkabuhayang maidudulot nito sa mga Muslim. Matapos ang pangkatang gawain ay ilahad sa klase ang resulta ng ginawang pagsusuri. 1976 Tripoli Agreement During these negotiations which were marked by a spirit of conciliation and understanding, it has been agreed on the following: First: The establishment of Autonomy in the Southern Philippines within the realm of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of the Philippines. Second: The areas of the autonomy for the Muslims in the Southern Philippines shall comprise the following: 1. Basilan 6. North Cotabato 11. Davao del Sur 2. Sulu 7. Maguindanao 12. South Cotabato 3. Tawi-tawi 8. Sultan Kudarat 13. Palawan 4. Zamboanga del Sur 9. Lanao del Norte 5. Zamboanga del Norte 10. Lanao del Sur
  • 25. Third: 1. Foreign Policy shall be of the competence of the Central Government of the Philippines. 2. The National Defense Affairs shall be the concern of the Central Authority provided that the arrangements for the joining of the forces of the Moro National Liberation Front with the Philippine Armed Forces be discussed later. 3. In the areas of the autonomy, the Muslims shall have the right to set up their own Courts which implement the Islamic Shari’ah laws. The Muslims shall be represented in all Courts including the Supreme Court. The representation of the Muslims in the Supreme Court shall be upon the recommendation from the authorities of the Autonomy and the Supreme Court. Decrees will be issued by the President of the Republic of their appointments taking into consideration all necessary qualifications of the candidates. 4. Authorities of the autonomy in the South of the Philippines shall have the right to set up schools, colleges and universities, provided that matters pertaining to the relationship between these educational and scientific organs and the general education system in the state shall be subject of discussion later on. 5. The Muslims shall have their own administrative system in compliance with the objectives of the autonomy and its institutions. The relationship between this administrative system and the Central administrative system to be discussed later. 6. The authorities of the autonomy in the South of the Philippines shall have their own economic and financial system. The relationship between this system and the Central economic and financial system of the State shall be discussed later. 7. The authorities of the autonomy in the South of the Philippines shall enjoy the right of representation and participation in the Central Government and in all other organs of the State. The number of representatives and ways of participation shall be fixed later. 8. Special Regional Security Forces are to be set up in the area of the Autonomy for the Muslims in the South of the Philippines. The relationship between these forces and the Central security forces shall be fixed later. 9. A Legislative Assembly and an Executive Council shall be formed in the areas of the Autonomy for the Muslims. The setting up of the Legislative Assembly shall be constituted through a direct election, and the formation of the Executive Council shall take place through appointments by the Legislative Assembly. A decree for their formation shall be enacted by the President of the Republic respectively. The number of members of each assembly shall be determined later on. 10. Mines and mineral resources fall within the competence of the Central Government, and a reasonable percentage deriving from the revenues of the mines and minerals be fixed for the benefit of the areas of the autonomy.
  • 26. Pinagkunan: 1976 Tripoli Agreement, November 17, 2012, http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Tagalog/Modules/Modules/MuslimMindanao/tripoli_agreement.htm 11. A Mixed Committee shall be composed of representatives of the Central Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the representatives of the Moro National Liberation Front. The Mixed Committee shall meet in Tripoli during the period from the Fifth of February to a date not later than the Third of March 1977. The task of said Committee shall be charged to study in detail the points left for discussion in order to reach a solution thereof in conformity with the provisions of this agreement. 12. Cease-fire shall be declared immediately after the signature of this agreement, provided that its coming into effect should not exceed the 20th January 1977. A Joint Committee shall be composed of the two parties with the help of the Organization of the Islamic Conference represented by the Quadripartite Ministerial Commission to supervise the implementation of the cease-fire. The said Joint Committee shall also be charged with supervising the following: a. A complete amnesty in the areas of the autonomy and the renunciation of all legal claims and codes resulting from events which took place in the South of the Philippines. b. The release of all the political prisoners who had relations with the events in the South of the Philippines. c. The return of all refugees who have abandoned their areas in the South of the Philippines. d. To guarantee the freedom of movements and meetings. 13. A joint meeting be held in Jeddah during the first week of the month of March 1977 to initial what has been concluded by the Committee referred to in Para. 11. 14. The final agreement concerning the setting up of the autonomy referred to in the first and second paragraphs shall be signed in the City of Manila, Republic of the Philippines, between the Government of the Philippines and Moro National Liberation Front, and the Islamic Conference represented by the Quadripartite Ministerial Commission and the Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Conference. 15. Immediately after the signature of the Agreement in Manila, a Provisional Government shall be established in the areas of the autonomy to be appointed by the President of the Philippines; and be charged with the task of preparing for the elections of the Legislative Assembly in the territories of the Autonomy; and administer the areas in accordance with the provisions of this agreement until a Government is formed by the elected Legislative Assembly. 16. The Government of the Philippines shall take all necessary constitutional processes for the implementation of the entire Agreement.
  • 27. Isaisip ang mga pamatayan na nakalahad sa rubrics habang tinutukoy at pinapaliwanag ang kahinaan at kalakasan ng bawat kasunduan ng 1976 Tripoli Agreement ng Republika ng Pilipinas at Moro National Liberation Front. Pamantayan Napakahusay 4 Mahusay 3 Nalilinang 2 Nagsisimula 1 Nilalaman ng Kalakasan at Kahinaan ng Kasunduan (30%) Ang lahat ng kahinaan at kalakasan ng kasunduan ay may malinaw ang paglalahad, ang mga detalye ay may ugnayan sa isa’t-isa at maayos ang pagkakasunod- sunod ng impormasyon May malinaw na paglalahad ng kalakasan at kahinaan ng kasunduan, ang mga detalye ay may malinaw na ugnayan subalit ang mga impormasyon ay hindi maayos ang pagkakasunod- sunod Mag-aayos ang pagkakalahad ng kalakasan at kahinaan ng mga kasunduan subalit ang detalye sa paglalahad ay walang ugnayan at hindi maayos ang pagkakasunod- sunod. Magulo ang paglalahad o walang kaugnayan ang nilalaman hindi nakaaayos ang pagkakasunod- sunod ang mga impormasyon Mapanghikayat na paglalahad kalakasan at kahinaan ng Kasunduan (30%) Lahat ng nailahad na kalakasan at kahinaan ng kasunduan ay may katibayan May isa o dalawa sa mga ito ay walang katibayan Tatllo o apat sa mga kalakasan at kahinaang inilahad ay walang katibayan Lahat ng mga kalakasan at kahinaang naisulat ay walang katibayan PaglalahadKalakasan at Kahinaan ng Kasunduan (20%) May kahandaan ang naglalahad ng mga kalakasan at kahinaan ng kasunduan. Organisado ang paglalahad at medaling maunawaan ang mga salitang ginamit. Maayos ang paglalahad ngunit at pinagplanuhang mabuti ang paglalahad ng kalakasan at kahinaan subalit may isa o dalawang detalyeng nakalimutan. Maayos ang paglalahad ngunit at pinagplanuhang mabuti ang paglalahad ng kalakasan at kahinaan subalit may tatlo o apat na detalyeng nakalimutan. Ang pangkat ay hindi handa sa paglalahad ng kalakasan at kahinaan ng kasunduan Pagkakaisa ng Bawat Miyembro ng Pangkat Nakikiisa ang bawat miyembro ng Nakiiisa ang buong pangkat ngunit may May dalawa o tatlong miyembro ang Ang pinuno lang ng pangkat ang halos
  • 28. (20%) pangkat, maayos at nakapagbibigay ng kaalaman tungkol sa paksa kaunting kaguluhan habang isinasagawa ang gawain hindi nakikiisa sa gawain bumuo ng konsepto at kaisipan Gamitin ang format ng talahanayan sa pagsusuri ng kalakasan at kahinaan. Nakalahad na Kasunduan sa 1976 Tripoli Agreement Kalakasan Kahinaan Transisyon sa Susunod na Modyul Ang karahasan, diskriminasyon, hindi angkop na uri ng edukasyon at kahirapan na dinanas ng mga pangkat-etniko sa Cordillera at Mindanao ay ilan sa mga hamon sa pamamahala ng isang matatag na republika. Dahil sa mga karanasang ito, ang mga taga-Cordillera at Muslim ay nagbuo ng mga samahang magsusulong ng kanilang karapatang pantao at awtonomiya. Ang mga pangyayaring ito ay ilan lamang sa ginamit na dahilan ng dating Pangulong Ferdinand Marcos upang ideklara ang Batas Militar noong 1972.
  • 29. Upang magkaroon ng sapat na kaalaman ukol sa Batas Militar, ito ay tatalakayin sa susunod na modyul ang iba pang salik sa pagdedeklara nito, mga paglabag sa karapatang pantao sa panahong ito at mga pamamaraan sa pagtutol dito.