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An overview of the Biodiversity of Sri Lanka and its conservation efforts

An overview of the Biodiversity of Sri Lanka and its conservation efforts

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  • 1. BIODIVERSITY OF SRI LANKA ANDITS CONSERVATIONAn OverviewGaminie Vijith SamarakoonDepartment of Wildlife ConservationSri Lanka
  • 2. SRI LANKAAN ISLAND IN THE TROPICS Having the optimum conditions year- round, tropical countries can hold a rich biodiversity
  • 3. SRI LANKA AS A BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOT Geographically Sri Lanka is an island separated from the Indian sub continent Together with the Western Ghats of India, Sri Lanka is recognized as one of the Biological Hotspots in the world Biodiversity Hot spots are only 8% of the total geographical area of the world, but holds 35% of the vertebrates and 46% of the plants
  • 4. BIO - GEOGRAPHY OF SRILANKA Central mountain massif separates the land mass into two climatic zones, as wet and dry Rain forests and Mountain Cloud forests in the Wet zone harbors a rich Dry biodiversity and shows a high Endemicity Intermediate Wet Arid
  • 5. ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY OF SRI LANKA Marine and Coastal Habitats Sea grass beds Coral Reefs Sea Coast Salt Water Lagoons and Mangroves
  • 6. ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY OF SRI LANKA Inland Fresh water Ecosystems Marshes Rivers and streams Rock pools Man made Reservoirs
  • 7. ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY OF SRI LANKA Forest Types – Lowland Dry Mixed Evergreen Forests Rivirine Forests Savanas
  • 8. ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY OF SRI LANKA Forest Types - Montane Montane Cloud Forests Rain Forests
  • 9. SPECIES DIVERSITY, ENDEMISM AND THE STATUS OF THEVERTEBRATE FAUNA OF SRI LANKA 250 200 150 100 Sp. Endemic 50 Criticaly Endangered 0 IUCN Red data List 2007
  • 10. MAJOR IMPACTS ON BIODIVERSITY  Two third of the populations is concentrated in the wet zone  Large scale multi purpose development projects in the dry zone  Galoya valley  Udawalawa  Mahaweli
  • 11. CRITICAL ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Loss of Natural Habitat  Deforestation  Improper land use planning  Mining  Invasive species Land Degradation  Slash & burn Cultivation (15% of the total land area)  Erosive Crops Depletion of Coastal Resources  River damming & sand mining  Salinization  Prawn farming  Degradation of Coral Reefs Water Pollution  Improper Waste disposal  Overuse of Agro chemicals
  • 12. CONSERVATION ACTIONLegislation Legislations to protect Forests & Wild animals since 1884  Forest Department Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance (1937)  Department of Wildlife Conservation National Environment Act (1980)  Central Environment Authority
  • 13. CONSERVATION SRATEGY,NATIONAL POLICIES ANDINTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS National Conservation Strategy 1988  Central Environment Authority National Policies on  Forestry – 1995  Wildlife – 2000  Environment – 2003  Wetlands – 2005  Elephant Conservation – 2006 International Conventions  Ramsar (1971)  CITES (1973)  Bonn (1979)  Biological Diversity (1992)
  • 14. NETWORK OF WILDLIFE PROTECTED AREAS Total of 93 Wildlife Protected Areas represent all biological regions of Sri Lanka  National parks 21  Strict Natural Reserves 3  Nature Reserves 5  Jungle Corridors 3  Sanctuaries 61 Total land area of WLPAs is 14% of the total land are of the country
  • 15. MAJOR FORCE BEHIND THE CONSERVATION OFNATURAL RESOURCES OF SRI LANKA Sri Lankan Culture
  • 16. Thanks !