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Dracunculiasis (Dracunculus medinensis) (guinea worm disease)
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Dracunculiasis (Dracunculus medinensis) (guinea worm disease)


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Dracunculiasis [Dracunculus medinensis] (guinea worm disease). Presentation by Joy Tapp at Georgia State University 111006

Dracunculiasis [Dracunculus medinensis] (guinea worm disease). Presentation by Joy Tapp at Georgia State University 111006

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  • 1. (guinea worm disease) Presentation by: Joy Tapp Dracunculiasis [Dracunculus medinensis]
  • 2. GENERAL INFO::: *One of the largest known Nematodes *Causes Dracunculiasis *Commonly called the Guinea Worm Class: Order: Family: Secernentea Spirurida Dracunculoidea
  • 3. (General info continued) *Found in superficial subcutaneous tissues *First described as early as 1530 BC and some historians believe it is the "fiery serpent” described in the Bible *Thought to be the transitional parasite between digestive tract and filarial parasites of tissues
  • 4. DISTRIBUTION::: *Poor communities in Africa with unsafe drinking water *Mostly found in Subsahara Africa *CDC reports that in 2003 only 32,193 cases were reported (63% from Sudan) *WHO has certified 168 countries free of transmission (including Pakistan, India, Senegal and Yemen) *Since 1995 only 2 cases reported in America (those individuals were from Sudan)
  • 5. LIFE CYCLE::: *The adult female emerges from the skin (90% legs and feet) *Person with protruding worm enters water, and female releases larvae *Copepods ingest larvae and within 10-14 days they reach the infective stage
  • 6. LIFE CYCLE::: *Once ingested, larvae travel to the small intestine *Penetrate wall of small intestine and pass into the body cavity *Over 10-14 months, the adult females grow to full size (2-3 feet) *The mature female then migrates to site where she will emerge (usually lower limbs) *A blister will develop at the emerging site, and within 1-3 days it will rupture *Worm will emerge from ulcerated skin (continued)
  • 7. LIFE CYCLE::: *Skin blisters and ulcers create a burning sensation and those infected often immerse affected limbs in water *When infected individual enters water, female will release larvae *Female is capable of releasing larvae for several days whenever in contact with water (continued)
  • 8. Slide 8
  • 9. SYMPTOMS::: *Symptoms occur approximately one year after infection. *A few days to hours before the worm emerges, a person may experience the following: fever, swelling, pain in area, rash with severe itching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness *Lesions may lead to secondary bacterial infections, which in turn may lead to: increased pain, may cause some to have locked joints and permanent crippling *Each time a worm emerges, a person may be unable to work or resume daily activities for up to 3 months. Emergence usually occurs in planting or harvesting season, leading to heavy crop loses and financial problems for the family. *Worms that do not emerge may form cysts and eventually calcify.
  • 10. SYMPTOMS::: (continued)
  • 11. SYMPTOMS::: (continued)
  • 12. SYMPTOMS::: (continued)
  • 13. SYMPTOMS::: (continued)
  • 14. TREATMENT::: * Remove worm * Worms that have emerged from skin may be successfully removed by wrapping the worm around a, small stick. This process often lasts a few weeks to months. Ocassionaly it may take only a few days. * There is no successful drug treatment, although some drugs may be used to treat symptoms * Worms may also be surgically removed before ulcer formation * Analgesics (asprin and ibuprofen) are used to reduce swelling *Antibiotic ointment may be used to prevent bacterial infections (continued)
  • 15. PREVENTION::: *The main way to prevent infection is through education *Educate indiviuals in areas prone to infection to: -Drink water from underground sources free from contamination -Do not enter drinking water sources with an ulcer -Use a filter for drinking water to remove copepods *Unsafe water can be boiled or treated with an approved larvicide to kill copepods
  • 16. REFERENCES::: IMAGES (cysts on human) (x ray, use leg and pelvis images) (pulling out with stick use for treatment) (large image of pulling out) (distribution) (dist) (pie graph) (microscope) (worm coming out of leg) (worm and ruler) (life cycle worm releasing egg) (2 worms) (good calcification) (copepod) INFO (continued)
  • 17. (guinea worm disease) Presentation by: Joy Tapp Dracunculiasis [Dracunculus medinensis] Thank You