Six Sigma Lesson (Powerpoint)

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Six Sigma Lesson (Powerpoint)

  1. 1. Six Sigma What is it? Robert Fruit SSBB CQE
  2. 2. Page I – 2 Guaranteed Success
  3. 3. Page I – 2 Define the Problem
  4. 4. Commercial Airline Take Off <ul><li>Pilot walks around the plane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alaska Air – plane crashes because of failed cable to vertical stabilizer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pilot checks controls from cockpit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United Air Lines plane runs out of fuel when captain asked for gallons of gas and was given litters of gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pilot goes through lengthy check list </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All procedures have historical reasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have some procedures outlived their usefulness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This procedure has 6  level of success, it is not Six Sigma </li></ul>
  5. 5. Six Sigma is a Process for Improvement <ul><li>Six Sigma is different than the procedures that preceded it </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes that you must have top management involvement from the start </li></ul><ul><li>Always has a limited time frame </li></ul><ul><li>Has a written goal </li></ul><ul><li>Has determined a means to measure success </li></ul>
  6. 6. DMAIC <ul><li>Define </li></ul><ul><li>Measure </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Improve </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul>
  7. 7. Six Sigma is about Measuring <ul><li>Six Sigma is all about measuring to prove results and improved profit. It is also about shaking things up. An organization not willing to change is not prepared to start a Six Sigma project </li></ul>
  8. 8. Make no Arbitrary Decisions <ul><li>Six Sigma is based on measured values </li></ul><ul><li>Many of those measurements are statistical </li></ul><ul><li>“… there are many degrees of probability, some nearer the truth than others …” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian Huygen 17 century from </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute Zero , Shachtman, 1979 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Not every problem is a Six Sigma issue <ul><li>Daily issues are no Six Sigma issues </li></ul><ul><li>Opened ended problems are not Six Sigma issues </li></ul>
  10. 10. Six Sigma issues have defined periods <ul><li>Part of defining a Six Sigma issues is setting a time limit for the Six Sigma effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Typical time period is 3 months </li></ul><ul><li>Some have less time </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely does a Six Sigma effort have more than 9 months </li></ul>
  11. 11. Where to Start <ul><li>Look for KIPV (Key Input Variables) </li></ul><ul><li>That effect KOPV (Key Output Variables) </li></ul><ul><li>KIPV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Things that influence KOPV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>KOPV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Things that are important to your customers </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Voice of the Customer <ul><li>KOPV – is the voice of the customer </li></ul><ul><li>If it is important to the customer it is a KOPV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On time delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet its requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Who is the customer <ul><li>The person outside your company who buys your product </li></ul><ul><li>The person inside your company who uses your product next </li></ul><ul><li>Both </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Purpose of Business <ul><li>Take a product </li></ul><ul><li>Perform your procedures on it </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the value of the product </li></ul><ul><li>Have a customer (internal or external) who is willing to buy that increase value </li></ul>
  15. 15. Where did Six Sigma Begin <ul><li>Motorola made Quasar TVs in Chicago </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lost money on every set that left the plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with quality of sets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems with worker motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sold Manufacturing plant to a Japanese firm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Got workers involved in manufacturing process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce defect to 1/20 of former level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same plant, same workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made big profits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motorola was embarrassed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CEO swore never to let this happen again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Started people on the path that became Six Sigma </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. GE gets into Six Sigma <ul><li>Under Jake Walsh GE starts to use Six Sigma methods </li></ul><ul><li>One of the biggest money savers was in reports. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People went around and talked to managers about the mountain of reports they got every month </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found that only a few of the reports were actually used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminated unused reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimated savings about $1 billion per year </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. TQM <ul><li>Who remembers TQM </li></ul><ul><li>It tended to be a top down system </li></ul><ul><li>Upper management demanded better quality from the people who worked for them </li></ul><ul><li>Who remembers “Quality is our business” </li></ul><ul><li>TQM tended to be short term attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As soon as quality problem solved move onto next project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of follow up </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Six Sigma is Long Term <ul><li>Get top management involved from the beginning </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly define the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Measure performance </li></ul><ul><li>Measure results of improvements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Report on $$ saved by improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Set up system to monitor results after project is concluded </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Cost of Poor Quality <ul><li>Many companies operate at 3-4  levels </li></ul><ul><li>25%-40% of revenue used for fixing defects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rework parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sorting out defective parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra employees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most of these companies don’t realize what poor quality is costing them </li></ul><ul><li>Companies working at 6  level typically spend 5% </li></ul>
  20. 20. Probability and Central Tendancy <ul><li>Typical show single probability curve </li></ul><ul><li>The central tendency can shift from the ideal position </li></ul><ul><li>This increases the area in the tail regions which is a measure of defects </li></ul>
  21. 21. Six Sigma Defects per Million <ul><li>Allow the central tendency move by 1.5 standard deviations either side of theoretical perfection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Page II-3 </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Defects per Million Opportunities <ul><li>DPP – Defects per part </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DPP = defects / parts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>O – Number of opportunities for a defect per part </li></ul><ul><li>DPMO = DPP / O * 1,000,000 </li></ul>
  23. 23. Six Sigma – 3.4 DPMO <ul><li>Achieving Six Sigma level is having 3.4 DPMO </li></ul><ul><li>Measure defects at start of process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert to  level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measure defects after improvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert to  level </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Six Sigma is more than DPMO <ul><li>DPMO in manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>DFSS – Design for Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New process designed to meet Six Sigma from the beginning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lean Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>In general almost anything that significantly improves profits </li></ul>
  25. 25. Punch Press Problem <ul><li>Bid on project based on 100 parts per minute </li></ul><ul><li>Best they can achieve is 80 parts per minute </li></ul><ul><li>They were going to loose a lot of money on the 3 year contract </li></ul>
  26. 26. Hand placed <ul><li>The pieces over lap each other </li></ul><ul><li>Must be precisely placed for machine pickup at customer </li></ul><ul><li>NO DEFECTS allowed in trays </li></ul>
  27. 27. 80 Pieces Per Minute <ul><li>Punch press no defective parts </li></ul><ul><li>Operators must untangle parts on round table </li></ul><ul><li>Operators barely keep up with flow of parts </li></ul><ul><li>Unstack tray for parts </li></ul>
  28. 28. Process Flowchart
  29. 29. Things Under Consideration <ul><li>Process Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving manual packing methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Un-stacking of delivered trays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Running machine at 180 SPM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintain current quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using 2 inch or 3 inch stroke press </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staging and storage of trays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing cost of materials </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Change Packing <ul><li>Receive 1,000 trays to a box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to unpack from shipping box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trays cling together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be separated without distorting box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Come from Phoenix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Send 16 trays out in special boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange for local manufacture of trays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive in the same boxes used to ship product </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Change Personnel Layout <ul><li>Tests showed that packers on linear conveyor packed faster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parts did not stack on each other </li></ul></ul>2 1 4 3 2 3 1 4 Original personnel layout Improved personnel layout
  32. 32. Original Costs
  33. 33. Improved Costs
  34. 34. Improved Profits
  35. 35. Some Keywords <ul><li>DMAIC </li></ul><ul><li>Voice of the Customer </li></ul><ul><li>KIPV </li></ul><ul><li>KOPV </li></ul><ul><li>DPMO </li></ul>
  36. 36. High Definition Television
  37. 37. HD TV on a computer <ul><li>ATI makes a HD tuner for PCI slot – HDTV Wonder </li></ul><ul><li>Works only with broadcast HD signal </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum standards do not come close to describing computer requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Do not get without having AGP 8x or PCI express slot </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to be part of multi-media computer </li></ul><ul><li>Has remote control, USB plug in receiver </li></ul>
  38. 38. Extreme Tech Comment The card itself features a Philips HDTV tuner box but ATI’s NXT2004 receiver chip does much of the heavy lifting. The NXT2004 VSB (vestigial sideband modulation)/QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) Receiver is designed for off-air and cable digital television receivers, set-top boxes, PCDTV, and datacast applications where cost, low power and industry-leading performance are a must. The NXT2004 Multimode VSB/QAM demodulator can work in either the ATSC compliant 8 VSB mode for terrestrial broadcasting, or DICSIS-compliant 64 QAM or 256 QAM modes for Digital TV-Cable Connect and Digital TV Cable Interactive reception. However, in the HDTV Wonder product, the NXT2004 is set up only as a 70-channel off-the-air HDTV receiver
  39. 39. ATI HDTV Card
  40. 40. HDTV is not CPU hog <ul><li>2.8 G-Hz celeron </li></ul><ul><li>768 Meg Ram </li></ul><ul><li>7200 RPM HD </li></ul><ul><li>No AGP </li></ul><ul><li>No PCI express </li></ul><ul><li>720P – black image </li></ul><ul><li>1080i – black image </li></ul><ul><li>Demand Direct X 9 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plus more </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. ATI RADEON 9250 PCI
  42. 42. Things I have Learned <ul><li>If you go for HDTV Wonder you are still in the pioneer era (arrows in the back) </li></ul><ul><li>The card assumes you are creating a media computer (rich set of software features) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote control plus USB RF receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs tweaking to start HD TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S video and component Video, left, right input </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not every feature works as well as you would like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TV directory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create DVD disk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep it all ATI (HDTV and video card) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complaints about GE-Force video cards </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. And now to Robts <ul><li>There are children ready robot projects </li></ul><ul><li>No not the False Maria </li></ul><ul><li>Based on BASIC Stamp module </li></ul>
  44. 44. 2 Robots
  45. 45. BASIC Stamp 5V Regulator Regulates voltage to 5V with a supply of 5.5VDC to 15VDC Resonator Sets the speed at which instructions are processed. EEPROM Stores the tokenized PBASIC program. Interpreter Chip Reads the BASIC program from the EEPROM and executes the instructions. Serial Signal Conditioning Conditions voltage signals between PC serial connection (+/- 12V) and BASIC Stamp (5V) for Programming.
  46. 46. BASIC Stamp Pin 1: S OUT Transmits serial data during programming and using the DEBUG instruction Pin 2: S IN Receives serial data during programming Pin 3: ATN Uses the serial DTR line to gain the Stamps attention for programming. Pin 4: V SS Communications Ground (0V). P0 P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 P15 Pin 21: V DD Regulated 5V. Pin 23: V SS Ground (0V) Pin 24: V IN Un-regulated input voltage (5.5-15V) Pins 5-20: Input/Output (I/O) pins P0 through P15
  47. 47. BOE BOT Box
  48. 48. Board of Education Robot – BOE Bot
  49. 49. BOE BOT Circuit Board
  50. 50. BOT motherboard <ul><li>The Board of Education makes it easy to connect devices, power up and program. </li></ul>Off/Module Power/Servo Power Breadboard Servo Connections 5V regulator Battery Wall DC Supply Serial Programming Port Off/Module Power/Servo Power Reset Switch Power On Light I/O Header Power Header
  51. 51. Programming <ul><li>A program is written in the BASIC Stamp Editor. </li></ul><ul><li>The Interpreter Chip reads the program from EEPROM and executes the instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>The program is tokenized, or converted into symbolic format. </li></ul><ul><li>Tokenizer </li></ul><ul><li>The tokenized program is transmitted through the serial cable and stored in EEPROM memory. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Instructions
  53. 53. Instruction <ul><li>The FREQOUT command sends high/low signals to the specified pin at the frequency and for the duration defined. FREQOUT Pin, Duration, Freq1, {Freq2} </li></ul><ul><li>To play a note at 2000Hz which lasts 1.5 seconds: </li></ul>
  54. 54. Instructions Inner Loop Outer Loop The inner loop is performed fully every repetition of the outer loop.
  55. 55. Instructions When index = 0
  56. 56. Instructions When index = 1
  57. 57. Instructions Each CASE will be checked Variable expression to be checked Conditions to check expression against If condition is true, Code will be ran. If not, it will be skipped Defines the end of the SELECT…CASE block
  58. 58. Shows how resources are used <ul><li>View memory </li></ul><ul><li>View registers </li></ul>
  59. 59. BOE BOT Program <ul><li>'Robotics with the Boe-Bot - BoeBotForwardTenSeconds.BS2 </li></ul><ul><li>'Make the Boe Bot roll forward for 10 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>'{$STAMP BS2} </li></ul><ul><li>'{$PBASIC 2.5} </li></ul><ul><li>counter VAR Word </li></ul><ul><li>FREQOUT 4, 2000, 3000 'create sound </li></ul><ul><li>FOR counter = 1 TO 407 'forward 10 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>PULSOUT 13,850 'left wheel forward </li></ul><ul><li>PULSOUT 12,650 'right wheel forward </li></ul><ul><li>PAUSE 20 </li></ul><ul><li>NEXT </li></ul><ul><li>END </li></ul>
  60. 60. SUMO BOT Box
  61. 61. SUMO BOT
  62. 62. Sumo Bot
  63. 63. SUMO BOT Circuit Board
  64. 64. SUMO Bot 2 CPU <ul><li>Motion uses PIC16C505 processor for wheels </li></ul><ul><li>Simplifies motion commands </li></ul>
  65. 65. SUMO BOT Programming <ul><li>Simpler commands because of built in functions </li></ul><ul><li>Must include predefined constants </li></ul>PAUSE 100 RobotData = RobotForward GOSUB RobotSend
  66. 66. SUMO BOT Remote Control
  67. 67. Remote Control Details
  68. 68. Pretend it is like Sojourner
  69. 69. Where to go from here
  70. 70. Which Bot do you want <ul><li>BOE BOT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More hardware assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must adjust software to hardware performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes with lots of extra parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More learning opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SUMO BOT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts running immediately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 built in behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kids like simpler requirements better </li></ul></ul>