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  • 1. Radar Many in a series of McGourty-Rideout Productions
  • 2. What is Radar?
    • RADAR (Radio Detection And Ranging) is a way to detect and study far off targets by transmitting a radio pulse in the direction of the target and observing the reflection of the wave.
    • It’s basically radio echo
  • 3. RADAR RA dio D etection A nd R anging
    • Radar observables:
      • Target range
      • Target angles (azimuth & elevation)
      • Target size (radar cross section)
      • Target speed (Doppler)
      • Target features (imaging)
    Antenna Transmitted Pulse Target Cross Section Propagation Reflected Pulse (“echo”)
  • 4. Radar Frequencies
  • 5. Radar Frequency Bands Frequency Wavelength 1 mm 1 km 1 m 1 nm 1 MHz 1 GHz IR UV 10 9 Hz 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 30 20 10 8 6 5 4 3 9 7 Allocated Frequency (GHz) Wavelength (cm) X-Band C-Band S-Band L-Band UHF VHF Visible 10 12 Hz Ku K Ka W 1  m
  • 6. The Range
    • Distance from the radar
    • Measured from time delay between transmitted pulse and returned signal received
  • 7. The Range
    • Remember, in general v=d/t and d=vt
    • The range is just a distance
    • Since radio waves travel at the speed of light (v = c = 300,000 km/sec )
      • range = c • time/2
    • Why divided by 2?
  • 8. The Range
    • The “2” is because the measured time is for a round trip to and from the target. To determine the range, you only want the time to the object, so you take half!
  • 9. Radar Range Measurement Transmitted Pulse Reflected Pulse Range Target
    • Target range =
    c  2 where c = speed of light  = round trip time
  • 10. Atmospheric Effects
  • 11.
    • Atmospheric attenuation
    • Reflection off of earth’s surface
    • Over-the-horizon diffraction
    • Atmospheric refraction
    Radar beams can be attenuated, reflected and bent by the environment
  • 12. Radar
    • The range and the direction of the target determine its location, which is what is needed for many radar applications such as air traffic control.
  • 13. How Strong Is It?
    • The strength of the received echo can also be measured
    • This will vary with the distance of the target, its size, its shape and its composition
  • 14. Types and Uses of Radar
    • Search radars scan a large area with pulses of short radio waves
    • Targeting radars use the same principle but scan a smaller area more often
    • Navigational radars are like search radar, but use short waves that reflect off hard surfaces. They are used on commercial ships and long-distance commercial aircraft
  • 15. Types and Uses of Radar
    • Mapping radar scans a large regions for remote sensing and geography applications
    • Wearable radar which is used to help the visually impaired
    • Air traffic control uses radar to reflect echoes off of aircraft
    • Weather radar uses radar to reflect echoes off of clouds
  • 16. Types and Uses of Radar
    • Weather radars use radio waves with horizontal, dual (horizontal and vertical), or circular polarization
    • Some weather radars use the Doppler effect to measure wind speeds
  • 17. Incoherent Scatter Radar- A Radar Application
    • Used to study the Earth's ionosphere and its interactions with the upper atmosphere, the magnetosphere, and the solar wind
  • 18. Incoherent Scatter Echo
    • Electrons in ionosphere are radar targets
    • These electrons can scatter radio waves
  • 19. Radar Can Measure Pressure
    • The strength of the echo received from the ionosphere measures the number of electrons able to scatter radio waves or what we call electron pressure
  • 20. Radar Can Measure Temperature
    • Some electrons are moving due to heat - In this case the echo is scattered
    • The echo will contain a range of frequencies close to the transmitter frequency
    • As the temperature increases, the electrons move faster
    • So radar can act like a thermometer and measure the temperature of the ionosphere
  • 21. Radar Can Measure Wind Speed
    • When an electron is removed from an atom, the remaining charged atom is called an ion
    • The ion gas can have a different temperature from the electron gas
    • The electron/ion mixture is known as a plasma and is usually in motion (like our wind)
    • So incoherent scatter radar can also measure wind speed
  • 22.