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    Developing the curriculum chapter 12ppt Developing the curriculum chapter 12ppt Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 12:EVALUATING INSTRUCTION Developing the Curriculum Eighth Edition Peter F. Oliva William R. Gordon II
    • AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: • Definepreassessment, formative evaluation, and summative evaluation, and describe the purposes of each. • Explain the difference between norm-referenced and criterion-referenced measurement and state the purposes for which each is intended. • Design test/evaluation questions in the major categories of each of the three domains of learning. • Define and give examples of performance-based assessment. • Contrast traditional assessment with performance-based assessment.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-2 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • DEFINITION OF TERMS • At this point, let’s clarify the meaning of the main terms used in this chapter: evaluation, assessment ,measurement, and testing • Evaluation and assessment are used interchangeably in this text to denote the general process of appraisal. • Measurement and testing are subsumed under the general classifications of evaluation and assessment.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-3 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • DEFINITION OF TERMS • Measurement is the means of determining the degree of achievement of a particular competency. • Testing is the use of instruments for measuring achievement. Thus, measurement and testing are ways of gathering evaluation and assessment data; however, there are means other than testing to evaluate student achievement.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-4 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • ASSESSING INSTRUCTION • The term “evaluation of instruction” could be expanded to read “evaluation of instruction through the assessment of student achievement.”Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-5 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • AN ERA OF ASSESSMENT • The words evaluation, assessment, measurement, testing, and accountability are heard with great frequency today in both public and professional circles and can evoke strong feelings; some, pro and some, con. • Some educators would banish the use of tests, both standardized and nonstandardized, because they feel the tests set an imposed, predetermined curriculumOliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-6 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • AN ERA OF ASSESSMENT • On the other hand, if legislation effected by state and national representatives reflects the public’s views, we might conclude that the public supports continuing efforts at assessment and accountability. • Whatever the perspective, it is abundantly clear that more is riding on standardized testing than ever before.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-7 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • STAGES OF PLANNING FOR EVALUATION • The three Phases of Evaluation are: ○ preassessment ○ formative evaluation ○ summative evaluation • These terms are technical words to connote evaluation that takes place before instruction (preassessment), during instruction (formative), and after instruction (summative).Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-8 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • PREASSESSMENT PHASE Two types of preassessment are suggested: 1. To evaluate the pupils’ possession of prerequisite knowledge and/or skills to begin study of the new subject matter 2. To determine whether pupils have already mastered the subject matter to be presented.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-9 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • FORMATIVE PHASE • Evaluation that takes place during the process of instruction is referred to as formative evaluation. • Formative evaluation is necessary to monitor both pupil progress and the ongoing success of the instructional program. • Formative evaluation, whether formal or informal, enables teachers to monitor their instruction, diagnose student performance, and make quick adjustments to their instruction.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-10 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • SUMMATIVE PHASE • Summative evaluation is evaluation that comes at the end of instruction, as represented, for example, in a final examination. • Summative evaluation reveals whether or not prespecified outcomes of instruction have been achieved. • Its major purpose is to find out whether the students have mastered the preceding instruction.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-11 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • NORM-REFERENCED MEASUREMENT • Norm-referenced measurement is the classic approach to assessment in which a student’s performance on a test is compared to the performance of other students who took the test. • Norm-referenced tests are used when selection must be made from among a group of persons.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-12 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • CRITERION-REFERENCED MEASUREMENT • In this approach, the performance of students on a test is compared to criteria that were established in the instructional objectives. • Criterion-referencedtests are used to determine whether students achieved the objectives specified in advance.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-13 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • EVALUATION IN THREE DOMAINS • Objectives, as discussed in Chapter 10, have been classified into three domains—the cognitive, the affective, and the psychomotor. • Instructors should design means of evaluating pupil performance in the three domains of learning.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-14 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • TESTS IN THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN • Tests in the cognitive domain are normally written essay or objective tests administered to an entire class. • The teacher should seek to evaluate achievement in the cognitive domain using both essay and objective test items.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-15 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • TESTS IN THE PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAINS • Discovery of psychomotor outcomes is best carried out by means of actual performance tests of the skill being taught. • The teacher may choose to include criteria such as performance or nonperformance (pass-fail, satisfactory-unsatisfactory) as part of the assessment process.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-16 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • TESTS IN THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN • We should refrain from using the terms “testing” and “measurement” in reference to the affective domain. We attempt to evaluate affective outcomes when we encourage students to express their feelings, attitudes, and values about the topics discussed in class. • Affective learning is an important dimension of education, and instructors should strive to determine the best way they can the extent to which students have achieved the desired objectives.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-17 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • PERFORMANCE-BASED ASSESSMENT • Many teachers employ practices collectively known as performance, performance-based, or authentic assessment, basically a personalized approach to demonstration of prespecified outcomes. • Some advocates of performance-based assessment would substitute authentic measures for typical teacher-made and standardized tests. Others would supplement traditional testing with alternative techniques.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-18 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENTS • Teachers should seek to develop competency in the use of a wide range of evaluative techniques. • Alternative assessment measures may include practices that could reduce or eliminate homework and change marking practices. • An example of a widely practiced form of alternative assessment is the use of portfolios to show evidence of student accomplishment by assembling samples of their work.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-19 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • ASSESSMENT INITIATIVES FROM BEYOND THE CLASSROOM •A great deal of assessment of student achievement is planned and administered by educators and measurement specialists from outside the individual classroom. • District- and state-level assessments are designed and carried out to spot both strengths and deficiencies in the curricula of the schools. National and international assessments lend a broader perspective to student achievement.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-20 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
    • A FINAL THOUGHT: • Instructors should keep in mind that there are numerous techniques other than testing for evaluating pupil performance. Good pedagogy calls for a diversity of evaluation techniques, as appropriate. Evaluation should be perceived as a continuous, cyclical process.Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e. 12-21 © 2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved